2Performance Analysis of Dense Small Cell Networks with Line of Sight and Non‐Line of Sight Transmissions under Rician Fading

Amir Hossein Jafari1, Ming Ding2, and David López‐Pérez3

1Samsung Research America, USA

2Data61, CSIRO, Australia

3Nokia Bell Labs, Dublin, Ireland

2.1 Introduction

Ultra‐dense networks (UDNs) hold the promise to rapidly increase the network capacity for the fifth generation (5G) of cellular communications [1] by deploying base stations (BSs) much closer to user equipment (UE) and reusing the spectrum intensively [24]. According to [7] and [8], a UDN refers to a cellular network where the BS density is larger than the UE density. However, in UDNs the small distances between transmitters and receivers also bring a change in the channel characteristics, which in turn may significantly impact the network performance. For example, the channel may become line‐of‐sight (LoS) dominated with the smaller distances between BSs and UEs, with the subsequent loss of channel diversity. However, some of the prior works for instance do not consider the probability of LoS propagations, and instead they use path loss models that do not differentiate between LoS and Non‐LoS (NLoS) transmissions. These assumptions along with other simplifications can lead to misleading conclusions, or conclusions that do not apply to the full spectrum of BS densities, e.g. the coverage probability is independent of the density of deployed small cell BSs in interference‐limited fully loaded ...

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