Ultrasonics, 3rd Edition

Book description

The book provides a unique and comprehensive treatment of the science, technology, and applications for industrial and medical ultrasonics, including low- and high-power implementations. The discussion of applications is combined with the fundamental physics, the reporting of the sensors/transducers, and systems for the full spectrum of industrial, nondestructive testing, and medical/bio-medical uses. It includes citations of numerous references and covers both mainstream and the more unusual and obscure applications of ultrasound.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface to the Third Edition
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Chapter 1 Ultrasonics: A Broad Field
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Brief Early History
    3. 1.3 Underwater Sound (SONAR)
    4. 1.4 Medical and Biological Ultrasonics
    5. 1.5 Industrial Ultrasonics
    6. 1.6 Nondestructive Testing/Evaluation
    7. 1.7 Ultrasonics in Electronics
    8. 1.8 Physical Acoustics
    9. 1.9 Ultrasonic Systems: Transmitters and Receivers
    10. 1.10 Low-Intensity Applications
    11. 1.11 High-Intensity Applications
    12. 1.12 Modern Ultrasonics: An Interdisciplinary Field
    13. References
  9. Chapter 2 Elastic Wave Propagation and Associated Phenomena
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Power Delivered to an Oscillating System
    3. 2.3 Velocity of Sound
      1. 2.3.1 Velocity of Sound in Solids
      2. 2.3.2 Velocity of Sound in Liquids
      3. 2.3.3 Velocity of Sound in Gases
    4. 2.4 Impingment of an Ultrasonic Wave on a Boundary between Two Media
      1. 2.4.1 Simple Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence
      2. 2.4.2 Some Basic Mechanics
      3. 2.4.3 General Considerations of Incident Waves
      4. 2.4.4 Development of General Equations for Reflection and Refraction Where Mode Conversion Is Possible
      5. 2.4.5 Wave Incident on a Liquid–Solid Plane Interface, Semi-Infinite Media
      6. 2.4.6 Shear Wave at a Solid-Solid Interface Polarized Parallel to the Plane of the Interface
      7. 2.4.7 Reflection, Refraction, and Mode Conversion in General Applications of Ultrasonic Energy
    5. 2.5 Transmission through Thin Plates
    6. 2.6 Diffraction
      1. 2.6.1 Huygens’ Principle
      2. 2.6.2 Diffraction in Three-Dimensional Space
      3. 2.6.3 Directivity Pattern
      4. 2.6.4 Focusing
    7. 2.7 Standing Waves
    8. 2.8 Doppler Effect
    9. 2.9 Superposition of Waves
    10. 2.10 Attenuation of an Ultrasonic Wave
      1. 2.10.1 Attenuation Due to Beam Spreading
      2. 2.10.2 Attenuation Due to Scattering
        1. 2.10.2.1 Scattering from a Cylindrical Obstruction in a Homogeneous Medium
        2. 2.10.2.2 Scattering by a Sphere in a Homogeneous Medium
        3. 2.10.2.3 Scattering from a Disk-Shaped Cavity in the Path of an Ultrasonic Beam
        4. 2.10.2.4 Scattering from an Elastic Isotropic Sphere in a Homogeneous Medium
        5. 2.10.2.5 Numerical Techniques to Study Wave Propagation and Scattering
        6. 2.10.2.6 Scattering in Practice
      3. 2.10.3 Attenuation Due to Hysteresis
      4. 2.10.4 Attenuation Due to Other Mechanisms
      5. 2.10.5 Measurement System Models
        1. 2.10.5.1 Resolution
        2. 2.10.5.2 Signal-to-Noise and Measurement Window
    11. 2.11 Relaxation
    12. 2.12 High-Power Phenomena
      1. 2.12.1 Cavitation
    13. References
  10. Chapter 3 Fundamental Equations Employed in Ultrasonic Design and Applications
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Simple Spring–Mass Oscillator
      1. 3.2.1 Ideal Condition—Simple Harmonic Motion
      2. 3.2.2 Real Condition—Damped Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 3.2.3 Effect of Damping on Phase Relationships—The Forced Oscillator
    3. 3.3 Wave Equations
      1. 3.3.1 Plane-Wave Equation
      2. 3.3.2 General Wave Equation
    4. 3.4 Solution of the Plane-Wave Equation, Linear System
      1. 3.4.1 General Solution
      2. 3.4.2 Free-Free Longitudinally Vibrating Uniform Bar
      3. 3.4.3 Stress in a Vibrating Uniform Bar
      4. 3.4.4 Mechanical Impedance
      5. 3.4.5 Quality Factor (Q)
    5. 3.5 Transverse-Wave Equation
    6. 3.6 Solution of the Transverse-Wave Equation
      1. 3.6.1 Clamped-Free Uniform Bar
      2. 3.6.2 Free-Free Bar (Bar Free at Both Ends)
      3. 3.6.3 Clamped-Clamped Bar (Bar Clamped at Both Ends)
      4. 3.6.4 Effect of Geometry on Transverse Vibrations of Bars
    7. 3.7 Plate Waves
      1. 3.7.1 General
      2. 3.7.2 Lamb Waves
      3. 3.7.3 Rayleigh Waves
      4. 3.7.4 Flexural Plates
        1. 3.7.4.1 Rectangular Plate with Simply Supported Edges
        2. 3.7.4.2 Free Circular Plate
        3. 3.7.4.3 Circular Plate with Its Center Fixed
        4. 3.7.4.4 Finite Exciting Sources (Transducers)
    8. References
  11. Chapter 4 Design of Ultrasonic Horns for High Power Applications
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Horn Equations
    3. 4.3 Types of Horns
      1. 4.3.1 Cylinder or Uniform Bar as an Ultrasonic Horn
      2. 4.3.2 Stepped Horn (Double Cylinder)
      3. 4.3.3 Exponentially Tapered Horn
      4. 4.3.4 Wedge-Shaped Horns
      5. 4.3.5 Conical Horns
      6. 4.3.6 Catenoidal Horns
    4. 4.4 Combining Sections of Different Configurations for Practical Applications
    5. 4.5 Effect of Damping on the Operation of Horns
    6. 4.6 Wide Horns and Horns of Large Cross Section
      1. 4.6.1 Wide-Blade Type Horns
      2. 4.6.2 Horns of Large Cross Section
      3. 4.6.3 Rotating Hollow Horn
    7. 4.7 Advanced Horn and System Design
    8. References
  12. Chapter 5 Basic Design of Ultrasonic Transducers
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Equivalent Circuits
    3. 5.3 Piezoelectric Transducers
      1. 5.3.1 Equivalent Circuit of a Simple Piezoelectric Transducer
      2. 5.3.2 Efficiency of a Simple Piezoelectric Transducer
      3. 5.3.3 Maximum Power Transfer between Electronic Power Source and Simple Piezoelectric Transducers….
      4. 5.3.4 Determining Transformation Factor (α) for the Piezoelectric Transducer Material
      5. 5.3.5 Quality Factor (Q) of Piezoelectric Transducers
      6. 5.3.6 KLM and Examples of Designs Using Transducer Model
      7. 5.3.7 Piezoelectric Transducers for High-Intensity Applications
      8. 5.3.8 Pulse-Type Transducers for Low-Intensity Applications Sensing
      9. 5.3.9 Piezoelectric Polymers for Transducers
      10. 5.3.10 Piezoelectric Materials and Their Properties
    4. 5.4 Magnetostrictive Transducers
      1. 5.4.1 Maximum Power Transfer to the Magnetostrictive Transducer
      2. 5.4.2 Efficiency of the Magnetostrictive Transducer
      3. 5.4.3 Magnetostrictive Transducers for High-Intensity Applications
      4. 5.4.4 Giant Magnetostrictive Materials
      5. 5.4.5 Comparative Properties between Selected Magnetostrictive Materials
    5. 5.5 Electromagnetic Devices
    6. 5.6 Pneumatic Devices (Whistles)
      1. 5.6.1 Some Practical Applications of Pneumatic Whistles
        1. 5.6.1.1 Coating Fine Particles
        2. 5.6.1.2 Controlling Foam in Large Industrial Tanks for Liquids
    7. 5.7 Mechanical Devices
    8. 5.8 Some Special High-Frequency Transducers
      1. 5.8.1 Electromagnetic Coupling
      2. 5.8.2 Electrostatic Coupling
      3. 5.8.3 Surface Acoustic Wave Devices
      4. 5.8.4 Resistive Layer Transducers
      5. 5.8.5 Laser Ultrasonics
      6. 5.8.6 Ultrasonic Arrays
    9. 5.9 Transducer-Generated Wave Fields
    10. 5.10 General Remarks
    11. References
  13. Chapter 6 Determining Properties of Materials
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Approximate Methods for Measurement of Velocity and Attenuation
      1. 6.2.1 Measurement of Velocity and Attenuation in Isotropic Solids
      2. 6.2.2 Measurement of Velocity and Attenuation in Fluids
    3. 6.3 Methods of Measuring Velocity of Sound
      1. 6.3.1 Interferometer Method
      2. 6.3.2 Resonance Method
      3. 6.3.3 “Sing-Around” Method
      4. 6.3.4 Pulse-Superposition Method
      5. 6.3.5 Pulse-Echo-Overlap Method
      6. 6.3.6 Measurements in Materials of High Attenuation
      7. 6.3.7 Measurements at High Temperatures
      8. 6.3.8 Measurements at High Pressures
      9. 6.3.9 Water and Other Reference Materials
    4. 6.4 Low-Frequency Measurements of Elastic Moduli and Poisson’s Ratio
      1. 6.4.1 Measuring Flexural and Longitudinal Resonant Frequencies of Bars
      2. 6.4.2 Measuring Torsional Resonant Frequencies of Isotropic Bars
      3. 6.4.3 Determining Poisson’s Ratio, Young’s Modulus, and Shear Modulus from Flexural and Torsional Resonance Data
    5. 6.5 Density, Viscosity and Particle Size Measurements
      1. 6.5.1 Ultrasonic Device for Quantitative Density Measurements of Slurries
      2. 6.5.2 Viscosity Measurements by Ultrasonics
      3. 6.5.3 Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy for Particle Size and Viscosity
      4. 6.5.4 Particle Size in Emulsions, Colloids, and Slurries
    6. 6.6 Determining Properties of Plastics and High Polymers
    7. 6.7 General Comments on Measuring Acoustical Properties of Materials
    8. References
  14. Chapter 7 Nondestructive Testing: Basic Methods and General Considerations
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Basic Methods
      1. 7.2.1 Resonance Methods
      2. 7.2.2 Pulse Methods
      3. 7.2.3 Acoustic Emission Technique
    3. 7.3 Factors Affecting Resolution and Sensitivity
      1. 7.3.1 Near-Field Effects
      2. 7.3.2 Properties of the Materials
    4. 7.4 Unconventional Techniques Used for Nondestructive Testing
      1. 7.4.1 Eddy Sonic Inspection Method
      2. 7.4.2 Sonic Analysis
      3. 7.4.3 Acoustic Impact Technique
      4. 7.4.4 Ultrasonic Spectroscopy
      5. 7.4.5 Critical Angle Analysis
    5. 7.5 Instrumentation
      1. 7.5.1 Coupling Energy to the Test Object
      2. 7.5.2 Resonance Methods
        1. 7.5.2.1 Transducers
        2. 7.5.2.2 Data Recording
      3. 7.5.3 Pulse Methods
        1. 7.5.3.1 Transducers
        2. 7.5.3.2 Data Recording
      4. 7.5.4 Acoustic Emission Methods
      5. 7.5.5 Phased Arrays Systems
      6. 7.5.6 Some Specialized Equipment
      7. 7.5.7 Commonly Used Specifications and Standards
        1. 7.5.7.1 Standards for Ultrasonic Inspection
        2. 7.5.7.2 Methods Used to Determine Flaw Size
    6. References
  15. Chapter 8 Use of Ultrasonics in the Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Metals
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Internal Structure of Metals
      1. 8.2.1 Material Evaluation Based on Velocity and Attenuation of Ultrasound
      2. 8.2.2 Surface Hardness Measurements
      3. 8.2.3 Evaluation of Sintered Products
      4. 8.2.4 Elastic and Anelastic Asymmetry of Metals and Acoustic Measurement of Residual Stress
      5. 8.2.5 Fatigue, Aging, and Monitoring for Metals
    3. 8.3 Inspection of Basic Structures and Products
      1. 8.3.1 Welds
      2. 8.3.2 Tubes, Pipes, and Shells
        1. 8.3.2.1 Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Structural Integrity of Underground Pipelines
      3. 8.3.3 Plates and Strips
      4. 8.3.4 Forgings
      5. 8.3.5 Bearings and Bearing Materials
      6. 8.3.6 Castings
      7. 8.3.7 Rails
      8. 8.3.8 Wires
      9. 8.3.9 Rivets
    4. 8.4 Inspection of Hot Metals
      1. 8.4.1 Hot Steel
      2. 8.4.2 Following the Liquid–Solid Interface During Cooling of Ingots
    5. 8.5 Determination of Bond Integrity
    6. 8.6 Thickness Measurements
    7. 8.7 Inspection of Solder Joints
      1. 8.7.1 Acoustic Microscopy
    8. 8.8 In-Service Inspection of Nuclear Reactors
    9. References
  16. Chapter 9 Use of Ultrasonics in the Inspection and Characterization of Nonmetals
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Concrete
    3. 9.3 Ceramics and Ceramic Coatings
    4. 9.4 Timber, Wood, and Wood Composites
    5. 9.5 Paper
    6. 9.6 Leather
    7. 9.7 Plastics, Polymers, and Composites
      1. 9.7.1 Inspection of Fibrous-Bonded Composites
      2. 9.7.2 Tires
      3. 9.7.3 Polymer Membranes
      4. 9.7.4 Energetic Materials and Solid Rocket Motors
      5. 9.7.5 Low Density Foams (Aerogel)
    8. 9.8 Adhesive Bond Integrity
    9. References
  17. Chapter 10 Imaging, Process Control, and Miscellaneous Low-Intensity Applications
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Ultrasonic Imaging
      1. 10.2.1 Historical Background
      2. 10.2.2 Electron Acoustic Image Converter
      3. 10.2.3 Schlieren Imaging
      4. 10.2.4 Liquid Levitation Imaging
      5. 10.2.5 Ultrasonic Imaging with Liquid Crystals
      6. 10.2.6 Photographic Methods of Imaging by Ultrasonics….417
      7. 10.2.7 Ultrasonic Holography
      8. 10.2.8 Acoustic Microscopy
      9. 10.2.9 Ultrasonic Arrays
      10. 10.2.10 Applications of Ultrasonic Imaging
    3. 10.3 Process Monitoring, Measurement, and Control
      1. 10.3.1 Ultrasound in Process Industries
      2. 10.3.2 Ultrasonic Systems and Measurements
      3. 10.3.3 Velocity and Attenuation Measurement to Characterize Media and Monitor Processes
      4. 10.3.4 Monitoring Solidification (Interface Sensing)
      5. 10.3.5 Acoustic Time Domain Reflectometry
      6. 10.3.6 Three-Phase Reactors
      7. 10.3.7 Process Tomography Using Ultrasonic Methods
      8. 10.3.8 Ultrasonic Transducers: Process Industry Applications
      9. 10.3.9 Density Measurement
      10. 10.3.10 Ultrasonic Characterization of Multiphase Fluids and Flow
        1. 10.3.10.1 Slurry Particle Size and Concentration
        2. 10.3.10.2 Ultrasonic Device for Empirical Measurements of Slurry Concentration
        3. 10.3.10.3 Measurement of Viscosity Using Ultrasonic Reflection Techniques
        4. 10.3.10.4 Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy for Particle Size and Viscosity in Slurries
        5. 10.3.10.5 Ultrasonic Backscatter Measurement for Slurry Concentration and Phase Changes
      11. 10.3.11 Fluid Flow Measurement, Velocity Profiles, and Rheology
        1. 10.3.11.1 Velocity Profiles and Rheology
        2. 10.3.11.2 Ultrasonic Liquid-Level Methodology…446
        3. 10.3.11.3 Multiphase Flow “Visualization”
      12. 10.3.12 Pressure and Temperature
    4. 10.4 Underwater Applications
    5. 10.5 Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors and Delay Lines
    6. 10.6 Application in Gases
    7. References
  18. Chapter 11 Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Basic Mechanisms and Effects
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 General Discussion
      1. 11.2.1 Energy and Energy Conversion
      2. 11.2.2 Interaction Zones
    3. 11.3 Mechanical Effects
      1. 11.3.1 Cavitation
      2. 11.3.2 Dispersions, Homogenization, and Emulsification
      3. 11.3.3 Agglomeration and Flocculation
      4. 11.3.4 Precipitates and Sols
      5. 11.3.5 Enhancement of Heat Transfer
      6. 11.3.6 Diffusion through Membranes
    4. 11.4 Chemical Effects: Sonochemistry
      1. 11.4.1 Depolymerization
      2. 11.4.2 Polymerization
      3. 11.4.3 Catalysis
      4. 11.4.4 Precipitation
      5. 11.4.5 Metals
      6. 11.4.6 Crystallization
      7. 11.4.7 Sonoluminescence
    5. 11.5 Metallurgical Effects
    6. References
  19. Chapter 12 Applications of High-Intensity Ultrasonics Based on Mechanical Effects
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Cleaning
      1. 12.2.1 Principles of Ultrasonic Cleaning
      2. 12.2.2 Factors That Affect the Cleaning Operation
      3. 12.2.3 Types of Ultrasonic Cleaners
      4. 12.2.4 Electronic Generators for Ultrasonic Cleaners
      5. 12.2.5 Choice of Ultrasonic Cleaning Fluids
      6. 12.2.6 Procedures for Ultrasonic Cleaning
      7. 12.2.7 Methods of Evaluating Ultrasonic Cleaners
    3. 12.3 Machining, Forming, and Joining
      1. 12.3.1 Machining
      2. 12.3.2 Metal Forming
      3. 12.3.3 Accelerated Fatigue Testing
      4. 12.3.4 Deburring
      5. 12.3.5 Compaction of Powder Metals and Similar Materials
      6. 12.3.6 Soldering
      7. 12.3.7 Welding
        1. 12.3.7.1 Welding Metals
        2. 12.3.7.2 Welding Thermoplastic Materials
    4. 12.4 Liquid Atomization and Droplet Formation
    5. 12.5 Agglomeration and Flocculation
      1. 12.5.1 Agglomeration
      2. 12.5.2 Standing Wave Separators
      3. 12.5.3 Flocculation
    6. 12.6 Drying and Dewatering
      1. 12.6.1 Acoustical Drying
      2. 12.6.2 Electroacoustic Dewatering
    7. 12.7 Agricultural Applications
      1. 12.7.1 Tomato Pollination
      2. 12.7.2 Germination of Seeds
    8. 12.8 Pest Control
    9. 12.9 Control of Foams
    10. 12.10 Coating Materials and Particles
    11. 12.11 Preparation of Carbon Spheres
    12. 12.12 Glassware Testing
    13. 12.13 Dispersions and De-Agglomeration
      1. 12.13.1 Dyes and Pigments
      2. 12.13.2 Preparation of Specimens for Study under Electron Microscopes
      3. 12.13.3 Preparation of Soil Samples for Analysis
      4. 12.13.4 Dispersion of Clay Suspensions
      5. 12.13.5 Dispersion of Chlorinated Pesticides and Other Solutions
      6. 12.13.6 Emulsification of Flotation Agents
      7. 12.13.7 Dispersion of Sodium in Hydrocarbons
      8. 12.13.8 Dispersion of Heterogeneous Phases in Molten Metals
    14. References
  20. Chapter 13 Applications of Ultrasonics Based on Chemical Effects—Sonochemistry
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Sonochemistry
    3. 13.3 Industrial Processes
      1. 13.3.1 Accelerated Etching
      2. 13.3.2 Treating Beverages, Juices, and Essential Oils
      3. 13.3.3 Treatment of Sewage
      4. 13.3.4 Extraction Processes
      5. 13.3.5 Demulsification of Crude Petroleum
    4. 13.4 Miscellaneous Chemical Effects and Applications
    5. 13.5 Electrolysis and Electroplating
    6. 13.6 Preparation of Nanomaterials
    7. References
  21. Chapter 14 Medical Applications of Ultrasonic Energy
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Power Measurements and Dosages
    3. 14.3 Basic Mechanisms and Principles
      1. 14.3.1 Mechanisms
      2. 14.3.2 Effect on Human Blood
      3. 14.3.3 Effect on Tissue Regeneration
    4. 14.4 Diagnosis
      1. 14.4.1 Principles
      2. 14.4.2 Equipment
      3. 14.4.3 Ultrasonic Contrast Agents
      4. 14.4.4 Diagnosis by Reflection Methods
        1. 14.4.4.1 Abdomen and Uterus
        2. 14.4.4.2 Neurology
        3. 14.4.4.3 Abdominal—Liver
        4. 14.4.4.4 Ophthalmology
        5. 14.4.4.5 Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
        6. 14.4.4.6 Cardiac
        7. 14.4.4.7 Tomography and Holography
        8. 14.4.4.8 Miscellaneous
      5. 14.4.5 Diagnosis by Doppler Methods
    5. 14.5 Therapy
      1. 14.5.1 Equipment
      2. 14.5.2 Physical Therapy
        1. 14.5.2.1 Rheumatic and Related Disorders
      3. 14.5.3 Sonicated Drug Delivery
        1. 14.5.3.1 Phonophoresis
        2. 14.5.3.2 Diffusion of Subcutaneous Injections.…
        3. 14.5.3.3 Blood-Brain Barrier
        4. 14.5.3.4 Ultrasonic Gene and Drug Delivery and Activation
      4. 14.5.4 Miscellaneous Medical Therapy Applications of Ultrasound
        1. 14.5.4.1 Ophthalmic Therapy
        2. 14.5.4.2 Effects on Paced Hearts
    6. 14.6 Surgery
      1. 14.6.1 Equipment
      2. 14.6.2 High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound— Hyperthermia
        1. 14.6.2.1 Cancer
        2. 14.6.2.2 Neurosonic Surgery
        3. 14.6.2.3 Applications of Hyperthermia
      3. 14.6.3 Shock Wave Lithotripsy
      4. 14.6.4 Tissue Dissection and Ablation
        1. 14.6.4.1 Phacoemulsification
        2. 14.6.4.2 Ultrasonic Surgery Using Tissue Fragmentation
        3. 14.6.4.3 Ultrasonic-Assisted Lipoplasty
        4. 14.6.4.4 Ultrasonic Scalpels
        5. 14.6.4.5 Intravascular Surgery (Thrombolysis)
        6. 14.6.4.6 Physics of Tissue Dissection and Ablation
      5. 14.6.5 Ultrasound in Dentistry
      6. 14.6.6 Selected Other Ultrasonic Surgical Procedures
        1. 14.6.6.1 Laryngeal Papillomatosis
        2. 14.6.6.2 Meniere’s Disease
        3. 14.6.6.3 Stapedectomy
        4. 14.6.6.4 Selective Hypophysectomy
    7. 14.7 Tissue Characterization
    8. 14.8 High-Frequency Imaging/Acoustic Microscopy
    9. 14.9 Ancillary Application of Biomedical and Research Applications
      1. 14.9.1 Cell and Spore Disruption
    10. References
  22. Glossary
  23. Appendix A
  24. Appendix B

Product information

  • Title: Ultrasonics, 3rd Edition
  • Author(s): Dale Ensminger, Leonard J. Bond
  • Release date: September 2011
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781000755725