UMTS Network Planning and Development

Book description

UMTS is the wireless network technology behind the rollout of Third Generation (3G) mobile telecoms networks which will bring video, music and internet services to the cellphone and a range of electronic products.
Chris Braithwaite and Mike Scott use their extensive experience of training engineers across Europe, and their backgrounds in working with Nokia, Ericsson and Orange to deliver a uniquely practical guide written from the perspective of the engineer and network planner. This guide is a valuable addition to the literature on UMTS which to date has been dominated by theoretical and reference works. The authors consider each of the key topics of UMTS/WCDMA and 3G rollout in terms of Coverage, Capacity and Quality of Service- the key considerations for all engineers and managers working in 3G telecoms.

*A real-world design guide with cookbook-style instructions and rules of thumb, not another R&D-level book or crib to the standards.
*Covers the hot engineering issues in UMTS planning, design and implementation.
*UMTS is the natural evolutionary choice for operations of GSM networks, currently representing a customer base of more than 747 million end users in over 180 countries and representing over 70% of today's digital wireless market[source: GSM Association]

Table of contents

  1. front cover
  2. copyright
  3. table of contents (1/2)
  4. table of contents (2/2)
  5. front matter
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Author Profiles
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Preface
  11. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 General Mobile Telecoms
      1. 1.1.1 Mobile Telecoms Today
      2. 1.1.2 Development to 2G Status
    2. 1.2 Transition from 2G to 2.5G to 3G
    3. 1.3 3G Universal Mobile Telephony System
      1. 1.3.1 Early Developments
      2. 1.3.2 Universal System Agreements
      3. 1.3.3 System Capability
      4. 1.3.4 3G Development Process
    4. 1.4 3G Network Planning
      1. 1.4.1 3G Roll-out Strategy
      2. 1.4.2 The Coverage, Capacity, and Quality Model
  12. body
  13. Part I NETWORK PLANNING AND 3G FOUNDATIONS
    1. 2 Wideband CDMA Network Planning
      1. 2.1 Radio Network Planning Process (1/2)
      2. 2.1 Radio Network Planning Process (2/2)
        1. 2.1.1 Capacity
          1. 2.1.1.1 Capacity Boosting Techniques
          2. 2.1.1.2 Soft Capacity
        2. 2.1.2 Coverage
          1. 2.1.2.1 Target Coverage
          2. 2.1.2.2 Sectorization and Adaptive Beam Forming
        3. 2.1.3 Quality of Service
          1. 2.1.3.1 Planning with Regard to Quality of Service
      3. 2.2 Developing Procedures for Planning and Maximizing Capacity and Coverage
        1. 2.2.1 Preparation
        2. 2.2.2 Number of Users
        3. 2.2.3 Management of the Network Plan
      4. 2.3 Development of the Network Design Plan (1/3)
      5. 2.3 Development of the Network Design Plan (2/3)
      6. 2.3 Development of the Network Design Plan (3/3)
        1. 2.3.1 Traffic Analysis
          1. 2.3.1.1 Traffic Intensity
          2. 2.3.1.2 Sample Usage and Service Offerings
        2. 2.3.2 Cell Coverage Estimation
          1. 2.3.2.1 Link Budget
          2. 2.3.2.2 Soft Handover Gain
          3. 2.3.2.3 Coverage Limited
          4. 2.3.2.4 Capacity Limited
          5. 2.3.2.5 Load Factor
        3. 2.3.3 Cell Count Estimation Model
        4. 2.3.4 Area Coverage Probability
          1. 2.3.4.1 Area Coverage Probability – Outage
          2. 2.3.4.2 Cell Edge Coverage Probability
        5. 2.3.5 Blocking
          1. 2.3.5.1 The Poisson Distribution
        6. 2.3.6 Simulation Analysis of Network Design Plan
      7. 2.4 Optimization
  14. Part II CAPACITY AND NETWORK PLANNING
    1. 3 Detailed Network Planning
      1. 3.1 Control Channel Power Planning and Its Effects on Coverage and Capacity
      2. 3.2 Capacity and Soft Handover Parameter Planning
        1. 3.2.1 Soft Capacity Calculations
        2. 3.2.2 Soft Capacity Assumptions
        3. 3.2.3 Soft Capacity as a Function of Bit Rate
        4. 3.2.4 Soft Capacity and Radio Resource Management
      3. 3.3 Capacity Enhancements with Inter-frequency Handover Planning
        1. 3.3.1 Microcells and Macrocells on Different Frequencies
        2. 3.3.2 Microcells and Macrocells on the Same Frequency
      4. 3.4 Changes in Capacity and Quality of Service with Non-uniform Traffic
      5. 3.5 Coverage Changes with Adaptive Control of Cell Radius
      6. 3.6 Pilot Power and Pilot Pollution
      7. 3.7 Soft Handover Planning in Terms of Capacity and Coverage
      8. 3.8 Hierarchical Cell Structures
      9. 3.9 Code Requirements and Their Effects on Capacity
        1. 3.9.1 Static and Dynamic Codes
        2. 3.9.2 Pseudo-noise Sequences
        3. 3.9.3 Orthogonal Codes
          1. 3.9.3.1 Walsh Codes
      10. 3.10 Code Planning
      11. 3.11 Characterization of the Radio Frequency Environment
      12. 3.12 Radio Network Testing
    2. 4 Network Dimensioning
      1. 4.1 Dimensioning
        1. 4.1.1 Traffic Modelling and Services
        2. 4.1.2 Channel Element Planning
          1. 4.1.2.1 Channel Element Example
      2. 4.2 Transmission Capacity
      3. 4.3 Multi-user Detection
        1. 4.3.1 Range Extension with Multi-user Detection in Loaded Networks
      4. 4.4 Spectrum Efficiency Comparison – Uplink and Downlink
      5. 4.5 Uplink and Downlink Load Factors
        1. 4.5.1 Uplink Load Factors
          1. 4.5.1.1 Uplink Noise Rise
        2. 4.5.2 Downlink Load Factor
        3. 4.5.3 Soft Handover
      6. 4.6 Uplink and Downlink Capacity
        1. 4.6.1 Uplink Capacity
        2. 4.6.2 Downlink Capacity
      7. 4.7 Capacity Improvements
        1. 4.7.1 Additional Frequencies
        2. 4.7.2 Sectorization
        3. 4.7.3 Transmitting Diversity
        4. 4.7.4 Lower Bit Rate Codes
  15. Part III COVERAGE AND NETWORK PLANNING
    1. 5 3G Co-planning and co-existence
      1. 5.1 Co-existing with 2G
      2. 5.2 3G Co-planning with 2G Networks
        1. 5.2.1 Co-planning Parameters
      3. 5.3 Intermodulation
        1. 5.3.1 Intermodulation Products
        2. 5.3.2 Intermodulation and 2G/3G Site Share
      4. 5.4 Isolation Requirements
      5. 5.5 External Operator Interference
        1. 5.5.1 Example of External Operator Interference
        2. 5.5.2 Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio
        3. 5.5.3 Adjacent Channel Attenuation
        4. 5.5.4 An Adjacent Channel Interference Scenario
      6. 5.6 Uplink Simulations
        1. 5.6.1 Planning Adjacent Channel Interference
      7. 5.7 UMTS Radio Carriers
        1. 5.7.1 Carrier to Interference Ratio
        2. 5.7.2 Guard Bands and Zones
        3. 5.7.3 Frequency Sharing
      8. 5.8 Inter-system Handovers (Slotted Mode)
        1. 5.8.1 Dual Mode
        2. 5.8.2 Slotted Mode
    2. 6 Influence of Link Budgets on 3G Coverage
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Link Budgets and Loads (1/3)
      3. 6.2 Link Budgets and Loads (2/3)
      4. 6.2 Link Budgets and Loads (3/3)
        1. 6.2.1 Interference Margin
        2. 6.2.2 Fast Fading
        3. 6.2.3 Soft Handover Gain
        4. 6.2.4 Energy per Bit per Noise Spectral Density
          1. 6.2.4.1 Processing Gain
          2. 6.2.4.2 Eb/No Requirements as a Function of Load
        5. 6.2.5 Uplink Budget
        6. 6.2.6 Downlink Budget
        7. 6.2.7 Propagation Model
        8. 6.2.8 Sample Budget Calculation
        9. 6.2.9 Link Budget Examples
          1. 6.2.9.1 Link Budget Example – 12.2 kbps
          2. 6.2.9.2 Link Budget Example – 144 kbps
          3. 6.2.9.3 Link Budget Example – 384 kbps
      5. 6.3 Coverage Versus Capacity in Relation to Link Budgets
      6. 6.4 Transmit Diversity
        1. 6.4.1 Downlink Transmit Diversity
        2. 6.4.2 Uplink and Downlink Transmit Diversity
        3. 6.4.3 Capacity and Coverage Gains with Transmit Diversity
      7. 6.5 Range Calculation Parameters (1/2)
      8. 6.5 Range Calculation Parameters (2/2)
        1. 6.5.1 Cell Load and Range
          1. 6.5.1.1 Reduction in Cell Range
        2. 6.5.2 Effects on Cell Coverage due to Parameter Modifications
        3. 6.5.3 Typical Coverage in 3G Universal Mobile Telephony System
      9. 6.6 Coverage Versus Different Bit Rates
        1. 6.6.1 Overheads for Different Bit Rates
      10. 6.7 Coverage Improvements
      11. 6.8 Summary
      12. Summary for Part III
  16. Part IV QUALITY AND NETWORK PLANNING
    1. 7 Quality of Service
      1. 7.1 Quality of Service
      2. 7.2 Service Capabilities
      3. 7.3 Quality-of-Service Traffic Classes
        1. 7.3.1 Conversational Class (Optimum Real-Time Quality of Service)
        2. 7.3.2 Streaming Class
        3. 7.3.3 Interactive Class
        4. 7.3.4 Background Class
      4. 7.4 Quality-of-Service Mechanisms
    2. 8 Radio Resource Management
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Admission Control
        1. 8.2.1 Admission Control Strategy
        2. 8.2.2 Levels of Admission Control
      3. 8.3 Load Control (Congestion Control)
        1. 8.3.1 Load Control Actions
      4. 8.4 Packet Scheduler and Load Control
      5. 8.5 Interference Margin
      6. 8.6 Power Control (1/2)
      7. 8.6 Power Control (2/2)
        1. 8.6.1 Power Control Mechanisms
          1. 8.6.1.1 Open Loop
          2. 8.6.1.2 Closed Loop
          3. 8.6.1.3 Outer Loop and Inner Loop
          4. 8.6.1.4 Outer Loop
        2. 8.6.2 Fast Power Control
        3. 8.6.3 Improved Quality with the Power Control Signalling
        4. 8.6.4 Uplink Fast Power Control – Intercell Interference
      8. 8.7 Handover Mechanism (1/2)
      9. 8.7 Handover Mechanism (2/2)
        1. 8.7.1 Handover Decision and Parameters
        2. 8.7.2 Soft Handover Algorithm
        3. 8.7.3 Handover Measurements
      10. 8.8 Multi-path Components
        1. 8.8.1 Macro diversity
        2. 8.8.2 Micro diversity
  17. Part V OPTIMIZATION AND NETWORK PLANNING
    1. 9 Radio Environments and Microcell Planning
      1. 9.1 Microcell Planning
        1. 9.1.1 Corner Effect
        2. 9.1.2 Pathloss Attenuation
        3. 9.1.3 Soft Handover Design in Microcell Environments
      2. 9.2 Radio Environments (1/2)
      3. 9.2 Radio Environments (2/2)
        1. 9.2.1 Indoor/Office Environment Planning
        2. 9.2.2 Outdoor to Indoor Pedestrian Environment
          1. 9.2.2.1 Manhattan Example
        3. 9.2.3 Vehicular Radio Environment
    2. 10 3G Planning Methodologies and Tools
      1. 10.1 Planning Methodologies
      2. 10.2 Planning Methodology Comparisons
      3. 10.3 3G Planning Tool Utilization
      4. 10.4 Planning Using Monte Carlo Simulations (1/2)
      5. 10.4 Planning Using Monte Carlo Simulations (2/2)
        1. 10.4.1 Monte Carlo Input Parameters
        2. 10.4.2 Monte Carlo Iterations
        3. 10.4.3 Monte Carlo Results Analysis
        4. 10.4.4 Propagation Models
          1. 10.4.4.1 Empirical Model
          2. 10.4.4.2 Deterministic Models (Ray Tracing)
          3. 10.4.4.3 Street Canyon Model
      6. 10.5 Mapping Data Requirements
      7. 10.6 Carrier Wave Measurements
    3. 11 Nominal Planning and Site Selection
      1. 11.1 Nominal Planning
        1. 11.1.1 Initial Network Dimensioning
        2. 11.1.2 Spreadsheet Dimensioning
        3. 11.1.3 Creation of a Nominal Plan
        4. 11.1.4 Defining Search Areas
        5. 11.1.5 Site Options
      2. 11.2 Perform Site Selection
        1. 11.2.1 Radio Requirements
        2. 11.2.2 Transmission Requirements
        3. 11.2.3 Access Requirements
        4. 11.2.4 Power and Planning Requirements
      3. 11.3 Effective and Ineffective 3G Universal Mobile Telephony System Sites
      4. 11.4 Suggested Antenna Heights
        1. 11.4.1 Dense Urban Sites
        2. 11.4.2 Light Urban and Dense Suburban Sites
        3. 11.4.3 Light Suburban Sites
        4. 11.4.4 Rural and Highway Sites
      5. 11.5 Traffic Calculation
        1. 11.5.1 Traffic Evaluation
    4. 12 Optimization through Detailed Site and Antenna Configuration
      1. 12.1 Introduction
        1. 12.1.1 Basics of Site and Antenna Configuration
        2. 12.1.2 Basics of Optimization and Configuration
      2. 12.2 3G Universal Mobile Telephony System Antenna Arrangements
        1. 12.2.1 Transmit Diversity
        2. 12.2.2 Receive and Transmit Diversity
        3. 12.2.3 Other Antenna Arrangements
          1. 12.2.3.1 Dual System Antennas
      3. 12.3 Ancillary Equipment
        1. 12.3.1 Tower-Mounted Amplifiers
      4. 12.4 Antenna and Site Configurations
        1. 12.4.1 Three- and Six-Sector Configuration
        2. 12.4.2 Omni-transmit and Omni-receive
      5. 12.5 Site Optimization (1/2)
      6. 12.5 Site Optimization (2/2)
        1. 12.5.1 Uplink Coverage Gain
        2. 12.5.2 Downlink Coverage Gain
        3. 12.5.3 Isolation Requirements
          1. 12.5.3.1 Co-siting Antennas
        4. 12.5.4 Antenna Tilts
        5. 12.5.5 Mounting of Antennas
      7. 12.6 Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service Versus Optimization Summary
  18. Part VI UMTS (3G) DEVELOPMENT
    1. 13 UMTS (3G) Development and Future Technologies
      1. 13.1 Main Components of 3G Universal Mobile Telephony System Services
      2. 13.2 Universal Mobile Telephony System (3G) Business Case
      3. 13.3 Implementation Aspects
    2. 14 Wireless Technologies of the Future
      1. 14.1 The Move towards 4G
      2. 14.2 Stable 2G and 3G Networks
      3. 14.3 Market Developments and Demands
      4. 14.4 4G
      5. 14.5 The Move from 3G to 4G
      6. 14.6 Technology Required for 4G
        1. 14.6.1 Wireless Technologies
          1. 14.6.1.1 Wireless Local Area Networks
          2. 14.6.1.2 Mobile Broadband Systems
      7. 14.7 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
      8. 14.8 Future Vision of Communications
  19. References and Bibliography (1/2)
  20. References and Bibliography (2/2)
  21. Glossary (1/3)
  22. Glossary (2/3)
  23. Glossary (3/3)
  24. Index (1/3)
  25. Index (2/3)
  26. Index (3/3)

Product information

  • Title: UMTS Network Planning and Development
  • Author(s): Chris Braithwaite, Mike Scott
  • Release date: December 2003
  • Publisher(s): Newnes
  • ISBN: 9780080474656