Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from about 3 GHz up to about 300 GHz. The higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength so that, at the top end of the microwave range, the wavelength is only a few millimetres. This has important effects on the way microwaves behave, as will be seen later. The range of wavelengths of microwaves puts them between the electromagnetic radiation used for broadcasting radio and TV programs and the waves of infra-red. This is why microwaves are similar to radio waves in some respects but also show some of the features of infra-red.

Generation of microwaves

Electromagnetic waves are generated by the rapid to-and-fro movement of charged particles, typically of electrons. The ...

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