After completing the chapter, you should be able to
- Define probability and describe three ways of assigning probabilities to events.
- Explain and apply the core rules of probability.
- Use Venn diagrams to visualize and explain essential probability concepts.
- Describe a general problem solving strategy and use Venn diagrams, probability trees and joint probability tables to implement that strategy.
- Use the three basic counting rules to count outcomes in a probability experiment.
Hang up and Drive
Assured that their responses would be confidential, 600 drivers in Washington State recently confessed to their biggest behind-the-wheel failings. Their greatest sin? Eating while driving. Sixty-five percent of the drivers surveyed reported that they had eaten a meal while driving their car. Coming in a close second was cell phone use: 58% percent of drivers acknowledged talking on a cell phone while driving. In addition, 25% admitted steering with their legs, 14% admitted shaving or applying makeup, 6% said they read a newspaper or book, and 3% admitted to writing text messages.
How do these distractions affect the risk of being injured or killed in a car accident? If there is any good news in today's traffic fatality statistics, it's that the probability of dying in a car crash in the US is still relatively low. In 2012, ...