This chapter deals with disk caches. It shows how Linux uses sophisticated techniques to improve system performances by reducing disk accesses as much as possible.
As mentioned in Section 12.1.1, a disk cache is a software mechanism that allows the system to keep in RAM some data that is normally stored on a disk, so that further accesses to that data can be satisfied quickly without accessing the disk.
Besides the dentry cache, which is used by the VFS to speed up the translation of a file pathname to the corresponding inode, two main disk caches—the buffer cache and the page cache—are used by Linux.
As suggested by its name, the buffer cache is a disk cache consisting of buffers; as we know from Section 13.4.3, each buffer stores a single disk block. The block I/O operations (described in Section 220.127.116.11 in the same chapter) rely on the buffer cache to reduce the number of disk accesses.
Conversely, the page cache is a disk cache consisting of pages; each page in the cache corresponds to several blocks of a regular file or a block device file. Of course, the exact number of blocks contained in a page depends on the size of the block. All such blocks are logically contiguous — that is, they represent an integral portion of a regular file or of a block device file. To reduce the number of disk accesses, before activating a page I/O operation (described in Section 18.104.22.168), the kernel should check whether the wanted data is already stored in the page ...