Operating systems use timers for purposes such as process scheduling, timeouts for network protocols, and periodic updates of system statistics. Applications access system time and timer functions to measure performance or to identify the time when events occur. Applications also use timers to implement protocols and to control interaction with users such as that needed for rate-limited presentations. This chapter discusses representations of time in the POSIX base standard as well as interval timers in the POSIX:XSI Extension and POSIX:TMR Extension. The chapter also explores concepts such as timer drift and timer overrun and demonstrates how to use POSIX realtime signals with timers.