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Images

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As downsizing, restructuring, and delayering took hold in the late 1980s, old ladders became largely inaccessible. Some rungs disappeared, and the space between others shifted from steps to leaps. At the same time, individual aspirations and company needs were evolving. Terms like work–life balance were overheard in break rooms. Organizations began to examine how breadth of experience weighed against depth of expertise during talent reviews. The ...

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