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Video Camera Techniques, 2nd Edition by Gerald Millerson

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Filters and Effects

Shooting through a filter or an optical accessory can produce a variety of visual effects. Some are used for image enhancement, others as visual gimmicks. They may be clipped onto the front of the lens, or mounted in an internal filter-wheel within the camera head, ready for instant selection.

Neutral density filters – ND filters

Under very strong sunlight you normally have to stop the lens well down, to prevent over-exposure. But small lens apertures are not always desirable –

•  Because camera lenses give better image quality at around f/5.6 to f/8.

•  Because the resulting depth of field may be greater than you want.

By introducing a gray-tinted neutral-density (ND) filter which will cut down the light without affecting ...

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