Menus provide groups of related commands for Windows applications. Although commands vary between applications, some—such as Open and Save —are common to many applications. Menus organize commands without “cluttering” the application’s user interface.
In Fig. 14.1, an expanded menu from Visual Basic 2005 Express lists various commands (called menu items), plus submenus (menus within a menu). Menu items are typically displayed down and indented to the right of the top-level menu, but they can be displayed to the left if there is not enough space to the right. The menu that contains a menu item is called the menu item’s parent menu. A menu item that contains a submenu is considered to be the parent of the submenu.