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Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing

Book Description

With rapid progress in Internet and digital imaging technology, there are more and more ways to easily create, publish, and distribute images. Considered the first book to focus on the relationship between digital imaging and privacy protection, Visual Cryptography and Secret Image Sharing is a complete introduction to novel security methods and sharing-control mechanisms used to protect against unauthorized data access and secure dissemination of sensitive information.

Image data protection and image-based authentication techniques offer efficient solutions for controlling how private data and images are made available only to select people. Essential to the design of systems used to manage images that contain sensitive data—such as medical records, financial transactions, and electronic voting systems—the methods presented in this book are useful to counter traditional encryption techniques, which do not scale well and are less efficient when applied directly to image files.

An exploration of the most prominent topics in digital imaging security, this book discusses:

  • Potential for sharing multiple secrets
  • Visual cryptography schemes—based either on the probabilistic reconstruction of the secret image, or on different logical operations for combining shared images
  • Inclusion of pictures in the distributed shares
  • Contrast enhancement techniques
  • Color-image visual cryptography
  • Cheating prevention
  • Alignment problems for image shares
  • Steganography and authentication

In the continually evolving world of secure image sharing, a growing number of people are becoming involved as new applications and business models are being developed all the time. This contributed volume gives academicians, researchers, and professionals the insight of well-known experts on key concepts, issues, trends, and technologies in this emerging field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. List of Tables
  9. Preface
  10. Contributors
  11. 1 Visual Cryptography from Halftone Error Diffusion
    1. 1.1 Introduction
      1. 1.1.1 Visual Cryptography
      2. 1.1.2 Halftone Visual Cryptography
      3. 1.1.3 Blue Noise Error Diffusion
    2. 1.2 Visual Secret Sharing
      1. 1.2.1 Notion and Formal Definitions
      2. 1.2.2 Construction of VSS Scheme
    3. 1.3 Halftone VSS Construction Using Error Diffusion
      1. 1.3.1 Share Structure
      2. 1.3.2 Distribution of SIPs and ABPs
      3. 1.3.3 Generation of Halftone Shares via Error Diffusion
    4. 1.4 Halftone VSS Construction Using Parallel Error Diffusion
    5. 1.5 Quality of Halftone Shares
    6. 1.6 Discussion
      1. 1.6.1 Improvement of Image Quality
      2. 1.6.2 Comparison with Other Methods
      3. 1.6.3 Image Decoding
    7. 1.7 Simulation Results
    8. 1.8 Conclusion
      1. Bibliography
  12. 2 Visual Cryptography for Color Images
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Color Superposition
      1. 2.2.1 Color Vision and Color Models
      2. 2.2.2 Lattices
      3. 2.2.3 The Darkening Problem
      4. 2.2.4 The Annihilator Color
      5. 2.2.5 The Identity Color
    3. 2.3 Formal Models for Colored VCS
      1. 2.3.1 The Models for B&W-VC
      2. 2.3.2 The Models for Color-VC
      3. 2.3.3 The SC, ND, and General Models
      4. 2.3.4 Base Matrices
    4. 2.4 Schemes for the SC Model
      1. 2.4.1 The VV Schemes
      2. 2.4.2 The BDD Schemes
      3. 2.4.3 The KY and YL Schemes
      4. 2.4.4 The CDD Schemes and a Lower Bound
    5. 2.5 Schemes for the ND Model
    6. 2.6 Schemes for the General Model
      1. 2.6.1 (2,2)-Threshold Schemes
      2. 2.6.2 The (2, n)-Threshold AS Schemes
    7. 2.7 Other Schemes
    8. 2.8 Conclusions
    9. Bibliography
  13. 3 Visual Cryptography for Multiple Secrets
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Naor and Shamir’s Basic Visual Secret Sharing Scheme
    3. 3.3 Visual Two-Secret Sharing Schemes
      1. 3.3.1 Wu and Chen’s Scheme
      2. 3.3.2 Wu and Chang’s Scheme
    4. 3.4 Visual Multiple-Secret Sharing Schemes
      1. 3.4.1 Shyu et al.’s Scheme
      2. 3.4.1.1 Informal Description
      3. 3.4.1.2 Encoding Circle Share A
      4. 3.4.1.3 Encoding Circle Share B
      5. 3.4.1.4 General Algorithm
      6. 3.4.2 Feng et al.’s Scheme
      7. 3.4.3 Experimental Results
      8. 3.4.4 Comparison and Discussions
    5. 3.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. Bibliography
  14. 4 Extended Visual Cryptography for Photograph Images
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Basic Visual Cryptography Schemes
      1. 4.2.1 (k,n) Visual Secret Sharing Schemes
      2. 4.2.2 Extended Visual Cryptography Scheme
      3. 4.2.3 Random Grids
    3. 4.3 Fundamentals of Photograph Visual Cryptography
      1. 4.3.1 Digital Halftoning
      2. 4.3.2 Image Quality and Related Parameters
      3. 4.3.3 Photograph Visual Cryptography with Basic Schemes
    4. 4.4 Variations of Photograph Visual Cryptography
      1. 4.4.1 Approaches to Photograph Visual Cryptography
      2. 4.4.2 Random-Dot Shadow Images
      3. 4.4.3 Similar Shadow Images
      4. 4.4.4 Positive and Negative Shadow Images
      5. 4.4.5 Error and Secret Diffusion
      6. 4.4.6 Simultaneous Iterative Search
      7. 4.4.7 Tone Adjustment
      8. 4.4.8 Continuous-Tone Subpixel
    5. 4.5 Misalignment-Tolerant Photograph Visual Cryptography
      1. 4.5.1 Theory and Implementation
      2. 4.5.2 Results
    6. 4.6 Conclusions
    7. Bibliography
  15. 5 Probabilistic Visual Cryptography Schemes
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Visual Cryptography Schemes
      1. 5.2.1 The Deterministic Model
      2. 5.2.2 The Probabilistic Model
    3. 5.3 Canonical Probabilistic Schemes
    4. 5.4 Probabilistic Schemes with No Pixel Expansion
    5. 5.5 Trading Pixel Expansion with Probabilities
      1. 5.5.1 Probabilistic Schemes with Given Pixel Expansion
    6. 5.6 Constructing Probabilistic Schemes
      1. 5.6.1 (n, n)-Threshold Probabilistic Schemes with Any Pixel Expansion
      2. 5.6.2 (2, n)-Threshold Probabilistic Schemes with Any Pixel Expansion
    7. 5.7 Probabilistic Schemes with Boolean Operations
      1. 5.7.1 (2, n) Scheme for Binary Images (Wang)
      2. 5.7.2 (n, n) Scheme for Binary Images (Wang)
    8. 5.8 Conclusions and Open Problems
    9. Bibliography
  16. 6 XOR-Based Visual Cryptography
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Preliminaries
    3. 6.3 Visual Cryptography Scheme Using the Polarization of Light
      1. 6.3.1 (2, n) Scheme
      2. 6.3.2 (n, n) Scheme
      3. 6.3.3 (k, n) Scheme
    4. 6.4 Visual Cryptography Scheme with Reversing
      1. 6.4.1 (k, n) VC Scheme Using Cyclic-Shift Operation
      2. 6.4.2 A Scheme for General Access Structure
    5. 6.5 Secret Sharing Scheme Using Boolean Operation
      1. 6.5.1 (2, n) Scheme
      2. 6.5.2 (n, n) Scheme
      3. 6.5.3 (k, n) Scheme
    6. 6.6 Conclusion
    7. Bibliography
  17. 7 Visual Cryptography and Random Grids
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Random Grids
      1. 7.2.1 Random Pixel, Random Grid, and Average Light Transmission
      2. 7.2.2 Superimposition of Random Grids
    3. 7.3 Visual Cryptograms of Random Grids
      1. 7.3.1 Definition of VCRG
      2. 7.3.2 (2, 2)-VCRG Algorithms for Binary Images
      3. 7.3.3 Experiments for (2, 2)-VCRG
      4. 7.3.4 Definition of Light Contrast and Performance Evaluation
      5. 7.3.5 Algorithms of (n, n)-VCRG for Binary Images
      6. 7.3.6 Algorithms of (n, n)-VCRG for Gray-Level and Color Images
      7. 7.3.7 Experiments for (n, n)-VCRG
    4. 7.4 Concluding Remarks
    5. Bibliography
  18. 8 Visual Cryptography and Contrast Bounds
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Preliminaries
    3. 8.3 Approximate Inclusion Exclusion
    4. 8.4 Designs and Codes
    5. 8.5 Optimal 3-out-of-n Schemes
      1. 8.6 Asymptotic Optimal k-out-of-n Schemes
    6. 8.7 Contrast Trade-Offs for Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes
    7. 8.8 Enhancing the Contrast by Nonstandard Models
    8. 8.9 Conclusion
    9. Bibliography
  19. 9 Visual Cryptography Schemes with Reversing
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Visual Cryptography Schemes
      1. 9.2.1 (k, k)-Threshold Visual Cryptography Schemes
      2. 9.2.2 Perfect Black Visual Cryptography Schemes
    3. 9.3 Almost Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing
    4. 9.4 Ideal Contrast VCS with Reversing
      1. 9.4.1 A Construction Using a Binary Secret Sharing Scheme
      2. 9.4.2 Constructions Using Perfect Black VCSs
      3. 9.4.2.1 The Scheme by Cimato, De Santis, Ferrara, and Masucci
      4. 9.4.2.2 The Scheme by Hu and Tzeng
      5. 9.4.2.3 The Scheme by Yang, Wang, and Chen
      6. 9.4.2.4 Comparisons
      7. 9.4.3 A Construction Using a Nonperfect Black VCS
    5. 9.5 Conclusions
    6. Bibliography
  20. 10 Cheating Prevention in Visual Cryptography
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Preliminaries
      1. 10.2.1 Visual Cryptography
      2. 10.2.2 Cheating in VC
    3. 10.3 Cheating Prevention Schemes
      1. 10.3.1 HCT1 and HCT2
      2. 10.3.2 HT
      3. 10.3.3 TCH
      4. 10.3.4 PS1 and PS2
    4. 10.4 Analysis of Cheating Prevention Schemes
    5. 10.5 Conclusions
    6. Bibliography
  21. 11 Resolving the Alignment Problem in Visual Cryptography
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Preliminaries
      1. 11.3 Misalignment with Integer Number of Subpixels
    3. 11.4 Misalignment with Less Than One Subpixel
      1. 11.4.1 Shares with Slightly Misalignment Can Still Recover the Secret Image
      2. 11.4.2 Large Subpixels Have Better Misalignment Tolerance
    4. 11.5 A Misalignment Tolerant VCS
      1. 11.5.1 The Algorithm
      2. 11.5.2 Simulations
    5. 11.6 Conclusions and Discussions
    6. 11.7 Acknowledgments
    7. Bibliography
  22. 12 Applications of Visual Cryptography
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Trojan-Secure Confirmation of Transactions
    3. 12.3 Trojan-Secure Authentication Using a PIN
    4. 12.4 Security versus Multiple Use
    5. 12.5 Using Refraction
    6. 12.6 Technical Problems Concerning Adjustment and Parallaxes
    7. 12.7 Voting with a Receipt Based on visual cryptography
    8. 12.8 Conclusion
    9. Bibliography
  23. 13 Steganography in Halftone Images
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 A Review of Error Diffusion
    3. 13.3 Data Hiding by Stochastic Error Diffusion (DHSED)
    4. 13.4 Data Hiding by Conjugate Error Diffusion (DHCED) 359
    5. 13.5 Performance Analysis
    6. 13.6 Summary
    7. Bibliography
  24. 14 Image Secret Sharing
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 State of the Art
    3. 14.3 Approaches for Image Sharing
      1. 14.3.1 Shamir’s Secret Sharing Scheme
      2. 14.3.2 Color Image Sharing Based on the Lagrange Interpolation
      3. 14.3.3 Color Image Sharing Based on Moving Lines
      4. 14.3.4 Improved Algorithm
    4. 14.4 Experiment and Evaluation
    5. 14.5 Conclusion
    6. Bibliography
  25. 15 Polynomial-Based Image Sharing
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Polynomial-Based Sharing Scheme
      1. 15.2.1 Shamir’s Secret Sharing Scheme
      2. 15.2.2 Lagrange Interpolation Scheme
    3. 15.3 Preliminaries and Related Works
      1. 15.3.1 Thien-Lin Scheme
      2. 15.3.2 Lin-Tsai Scheme
      3. 15.3.3 Yang et al.’s Scheme
      4. 15.3.4 Inverted Pattern LSB Scheme
      5. 15.3.5 Scalable Secret Image Sharing
    4. 15.4 Wang et al.’s Scheme
      1. 15.4.1 Secret Image Sharing
      2. 15.4.2 Set-Up Authentication
      3. 15.4.3 Main Algorithms
    5. 15.5 Experimental Results
      1. 15.5.1 Fidelity Analysis
      2. 15.5.2 Evaluating Authentication
    6. 15.6 Conclusions
    7. Bibliography
  26. 16 Image Sharing with Steganography and Authentication
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Related Work
      1. 16.2.1 Lin and Tsai’s Scheme
      2. 16.2.2 Yang et al.’s Scheme
      3. 16.2.3 Chang et al.’s Scheme
    3. 16.3 Adopted Techniques in the Proposed Scheme
      1. 16.3.1 Error Diffusion Technique
      2. 16.3.2 Interpolation Technique
      3. 16.3.3 Canny Edge Detector
      4. 16.3.4 Edge Lookup Inverse Halftoning Technique
      5. 16.3.5 Shamir Scheme for Secret Sharing
    4. 16.4 Proposed Scheme
      1. 16.4.1 Sharing and Embedding Phase
      2. 16.4.2 Reconstruction and Verifying Phase
    5. 16.5 Experimental Results
    6. 16.6 Conclusions
    7. Bibliography
  27. 17 Two-Decoding-Option Image Sharing Method
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Preliminaries
      1. 17.2.1 PISSS
      2. 17.2.2 VCS
    3. 17.3 Previous Works
      1. 17.3.1 Jin et al.’s TiOISSS
      2. 17.3.2 Lin and Lin’s TiOISSS
    4. 17.4 A New (k, n)-TiOISSS
      1. 17.4.1 Design Concept
      2. 17.4.2 The Lossless TiOISSS
    5. 17.5 Experimental Results and Comparisons
    6. 17.6 Conclusion
    7. Bibliography
  28. Index