Visuals are omnipresent in organizations today. They are artifacts like infographics, tables, maps, diagrams, networks, graphics, but also flip chart drawings, sketches, comics, photos. Nearly all tools in project, program, and portfolio management, and many in management are based on visuals; they are part of how we manage organizations (Meyer, Höllerer, Jancsary, & Van Leeuwen, 2013). If used mindfully, visuals are powerful cognition and communication aids (Card, Mackinlay, & Shneiderman, 1999; Ware, 2012), yet they can also influence our actions and decisions unfavorably.
Scant research has been dedicated to the role of visuals in organizations. In practice, many managers exhibit a low degree of literacy and consciousness ...