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Web Security, Privacy & Commerce, 2nd Edition by Gene Spafford, Simson Garfinkel

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Chapter 5. Understanding SSL and TLS

SSL is the Secure Sockets Layer, a general-purpose protocol for sending encrypted information over the Internet. Developed by Netscape, SSL was first popularized by Netscape’s web browser and web server. The idea was to stimulate the sales of the company’s cryptographically enabled web servers by distributing a free client that implemented the same cryptographic protocols.

Since then, SSL has been incorporated into many other web servers and browsers, and by now support for SSL is no longer a competitive advantage but a necessity. SSL has gone through two major versions. In 1996 the Internet Engineering Task Force Transport Layer Security (TLS) was established to create an open stream encryption standard. The group started with SSL 3.0 and, in 1999, published RFC 2246, “TLS Protocol Version 1.0.” RFC 2712 adds Kerberos authentication to TLS. RFC 2817 and 2818 apply to TLS using HTTP/1.1. This chapter introduces SSL and TLS. Appendix B provides detailed technical information.

What Is SSL?

SSL is a layer that exists between the raw TCP/IP protocol and the application layer. While the standard TCP/IP protocol simply sends an unauthenticated, error-free stream of information between two computers (or between two processes running on the same computer), SSL adds numerous features to that stream, including:

  • Authentication of the server, using digital signatures

  • Authentication of the client, using digital signatures

  • Data confidentiality through the use of ...

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