34 WebSphere Application Server V8.5 Migration Guide
Information about users and groups are in a
user registry. In WebSphere Application
Server, a user registry authenticates a user. It contains information about users and
groups so that security-related functions, including authentication and authorization, can
be performed. Although WebSphere Application Server supports several types of user
registries, only one user registry can be active in a certain scope.
WebSphere Application Server supports the following types of user registries:
– Local operating system
– Stand-alone Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
– Federated repository (a combination of a file-based registry and one or more LDAP
servers in a single realm)
– Custom registry
1.15 Liberty profile
The Liberty profile is a dynamic and composable profile of WebSphere Application Server
V8.5 that enables WebSphere Application Server to provision only the features that are
required by the application (or set of applications) that are deployed to the server. For
example, if an application requires just a servlet engine, a Liberty profile can be configured to
start only the WebSphere Application Server kernel, the HTTP transport, and the web
container. Thus, the Liberty profile is quick to start and has a small footprint.
The Liberty profile provides a simplified and lightweight development and application-serving
environment that is optimized for developer and operational productivity. This profile is
intended for use as a development environment and as a production environment for running
web applications that do not require a full Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) stack.
The Liberty profile provides enterprise qualities of service, such as security and
The Liberty profile includes the following key features:
A dynamic and flexible run time to load only what the application needs
A quick startup time (under five seconds with simple web applications)
A simplified configuration that uses a single configuration file or modular configuration
Support for deploying applications that are developed in the Liberty profile to run in the
Support of web applications, OSGi applications, and Java Persistence API
Support for LDAP registry
Ability to deploy an application and configured server as a package
Managed and centralized deployment to many nodes of a packaged application
Availability of WebSphere Application Server Developer Tools as Eclipse plug-ins for
broad tooling support
Support for z/OS platform native features like System Authorization Facility (SAF),
Resource Recovery Service (RRS), and z/OS workload management (WLM)
Chapter 1. Overview of WebSphere Application Server V8.5 35
The Liberty profile provides a development and a test environment and a production
environment on all WebSphere Application Server V8.5 supported platforms. Additionally, the
Liberty profile provides a development environment on the Macintosh operating system.
1.15.1 Liberty profile architecture
As shown in Figure 1-14, the Liberty profile is built on OSGi technologies. The server process
runs as OSGi bundles and consists of a single Java virtual machine (JVM), the Liberty profile
kernel, and any number of optional features.
Figure 1-14 Liberty profile architecture
A functional server is produced by starting the runtime environment with a configuration that
includes a list of features that are to be used.
Features are the units of capability, by which the
runtime environment is defined and controlled.
By default, a server runs no features. You can use the feature manager to add the features
that are needed. The feature manager maps each feature name to a list of bundles that
provide the feature. When a feature configuration is changed, the feature manager
recalculates the list of required bundles, stops and uninstalls those bundles that are no longer
needed, and then installs and starts any additions. All features are designed to cope with
other features that are added or removed dynamically.
1.15.2 Liberty profile configuration
A Liberty profile server configuration consists of a server.xml and an optional
bootstrap.properties file and any (optional) files that are included by these files. The
server.xml file is the primary configuration file for the server, and the file that users work with
the most. The bootstrap.properties file specifies properties that need to be available before
the main configuration is processed and these properties are kept to a minimum.
j ndi- 1. 0 jdbc- 4. 0
m onit or - 1.0tran saction-1.1
ssl -1. 0
ser vlet -3. 0
jsp-2.2 jsf - 2.0
JD K 6.0+