Appendix B

Analytical Framework Applied to Goldman

Diane Vaughan’s analytical causal framework examines three main pressures—environmental and organizational (for simplicity, “organizational”); regulatory; and competitive—to analyze change over time.1 In order to analyze Goldman, I utilize Vaughan’s framework and add technological pressure.

When the framework is applied to Goldman, as shown in Table B-1, the result illuminates changes more clearly over time. Even though the changes are presented in temporal sequence from 1979, when the firm’s business principles were written by John Whitehead, to today and are divided by who ran the firm or oversaw major changes, this is only for simplicity of presentation. The changes are related to each other, ...

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