Like the inventors of the light bulb, the telephone, and the automobile, the inventors of modern management were born in the nineteenth century. Those long–dead pioneers—individuals like James Mooney, Alfred Sloan, and Donaldson Brown—would be surprised to learn that their inventions (which included workflow optimization, variance analysis, capital budgeting, functional specialization, divisionalization, and project management), are still the cornerstones of twenty–first–century management systems.

It is difficult for contemporary observers to appreciate the profound impact these revolutionary breakthroughs had on the organization of economic life in the early decades of America's industrial ...

Get What Matters Now: How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, and Unstoppable Innovation now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience books, live events, courses curated by job role, and more from O’Reilly and nearly 200 top publishers.