Carl is an engineer in a large technology firm. He’s part of a small team that’s on a tight deadline to finish a component for a larger system that will make his organization billions of dollars. Like the rest of his team, Carl works long hours, often staying until 8 p.m. in the clean lab, testing options and working to optimize the component ahead of the deadline.

While his boss thinks Carl is a good, hardworking engineer, he also thinks Carl acts entitled because he frequently arrives after 11 a.m., with just enough time to turn on his computer and find out what his team is working on before he goes to lunch with his friends. Carl told his boss that he works late, so he should be able to come in late—every ...

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