IN MOVIES LIKE American Sniper, the James Bond series, and Clint Eastwood’s spaghetti Westerns, the entire focus of the movie is, for a few seconds, on the character getting ready to pull the trigger in an intense life-or-death situation. It is obvious in these situations that the person must erase all distractions and focus totally on the matter at hand. While most of us will never find ourselves in a situation where we have been asked to shoot someone, our days are filled with similar moments that require our complete attention.

The problem is, we are often distracted. Even when we want to pay attention, we cannot seem to get away from the millions of thoughts racing through our heads. And it is not just our own thoughts. ...

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