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Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems

Book Description

The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian.

The authors examine electrodynamics, multiconductor lines, and numerical methods for the modeling, simulation, analysis, and design of various super-wide-band slow-wave structures, including helical, meander, and gutter-type systems.

The book features:

  • The electrodynamic method for analysis of helical structures containing periodical inhomogeneities
  • The multiconductor line method for analysis of complex helical, meander, and gutter-type wide-band slow-wave structures
  • The method of moments for modeling and analysis of multiconductor lines containing a limited number of lines and meander structures with limited length
  • Use of powerful software systems Microwave Office®, MICROWAVE STUDIO®, and MATLAB® for modeling, analysis, and design
  • A synergy of various methods for investigating and designing wide-band slow-wave structures
  • Solution of specific problems related to the design of wide-band and super-wide-band electrodynamic delay and deflection systems
  • Principles of computer-aided design of slow-wave structures

Presenting the theory, principles, properties, and applications of wide-band and super-wide-band slow-wave structures, this book will be of interest to students, engineers, researchers, and designers in the fields of electronic and microwave engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Introduction
  7. Symbols and Acronyms
  8. 1 Analysis of Nonhomogeneous Helical Systems Using Electrodynamical Methods
    1. 1.1 Modeling of Nonhomogeneous Helical Systems
    2. 1.2 Simulation of Axially Symmetrical Helical System
    3. 1.3 Simulation of Complex Helical Systems without Internal Shields
      1. 1.3.1 Modeling and Properties of the Helix Asymmetrically Mounted inside the External Shield
      2. 1.3.2 Generalized Model of Helical Systems without Internal Shields
    4. 1.4 Summary
    5. References
  9. 2 Multiconductor Line Method
    1. 2.1 Electromagnetic Waves in Multiconductor Lines
      1. 2.1.1 Wave Equation
      2. 2.1.2 Space Harmonics in Periodic Structures
      3. 2.1.3 Waves in Multiconductor Lines with Homogeneous Dielectric
      4. 2.1.4 Space Harmonics in Multiconductor Lines
    2. 2.2 Voltages and Currents in Multiconductor Lines
      1. 2.2.1 Multiconductor Lines with Homogeneous Dielectric
      2. 2.2.2 Multiconductor Lines with Nonhomogeneous Dielectric
    3. 2.3 Normal Waves in Multiconductor Lines
      1. 2.3.1 Telegraph Equations and Their Solutions
      2. 2.3.2 Relationships for Voltages and Currents in Normal Waves
      3. 2.3.3 Parameters of Multiconductor Lines in Normal Waves
    4. 2.4 Dependence of Wave Admittances and Effective Dielectric Permittivities on Phase Angle
    5. 2.5 Calculation of Capacitances
    6. 2.6 Principles of Modeling of Slow-Wave Structures
    7. 2.7 Application of the Multiconductor Line Method for Analysis of Nonhomogeneous Systems
      1. 2.7.1 Model of the System
      2. 2.7.2 Dispersion Equation, Retardation Factor, and Input Impedance
      3. 2.7.3 Calculation Results
    8. 2.8 Calculations of Frequency Characteristics Using Numerical Iterations
      1. 2.8.1 Calculation of Characteristics Avoiding Derivation of Dispersion Equations
      2. 2.8.2 Simulation of an Axially Symmetrical Helical System
    9. 2.9 Application of Scattering Transmission Line Matrices
      1. 2.9.1 Two-Port Circuits in Models of Periodic Systems
      2. 2.9.2 Composition of Scattering Matrix for Multiconductor Lines
      3. 2.9.3 Meander Slow-Wave System Model Based on Scattering Parameters
      4. 2.9.4 Results of Calculations
    10. 2.10 Summary
    11. References
  10. 3 Calculation of Characteristic Impedances of Multiconductor Lines
    1. 3.1 Finite Difference Method
      1. 3.1.1 General Information
      2. 3.1.2 Calculation of Potential Distribution
      3. 3.1.3 Calculation of Distributed Capacitances
      4. 3.1.4 Calculations of Characteristic Impedances of Multiconductor Lines
      5. 3.1.5 Duration and Errors of Calculations
      6. 3.1.6 Software for Calculations of Characteristic Impedances
    2. 3.2 Finite Element Method
      1. 3.2.1 General Information
      2. 3.2.2 Finite Elements
      3. 3.2.3 Conjunction of Cells
      4. 3.2.4 Computation of Potentials of Nodes
      5. 3.2.5 Software Based on the Finite Element Method
    3. 3.3 Integral Equation Method
      1. 3.3.1 Integral Equations
      2. 3.3.2 The Principles of the Method of Moments
      3. 3.3.3 Calculation of Charges
      4. 3.3.4 Calculation of Characteristic Impedance
      5. 3.3.5 Software Based on Integral Equation Method
    4. 3.4 Application of the Method of Integral Equations
      1. 3.4.1 Characteristic Impedance of the Microstrip Line
        1. 3.4.1.1 Partial Images in the Space Containing a Dielectric Plate
        2. 3.4.1.2 The Mathematical Model of the Microstrip Line
        3. 3.4.1.3 Results of Calculations
      2. 3.4.2 Characteristic Impedances of Coupled Microstrip Lines
        1. 3.4.2.1 Model of Coupled Microstrip Lines
        2. 3.4.2.2 Model of Coupled Microstrip Lines with a Homogeneous Dielectric
        3. 3.4.2.3 Model of Coupled Microstrip Lines with a Nonhomogeneous Dielectric
        4. 3.4.2.4 Results of Calculations
      3. 3.4.3 Calculation of Characteristic Impedances of Multiconductor Microstrip Lines
      4. 3.4.4 Results of Calculations
    5. 3.5 Summary
    6. References
  11. 4 Models and Properties of Slow-Wave Systems
    1. 4.1 Models and Properties of Special Types of Helical Systems
      1. 4.1.1 Twined Helical System
        1. 4.1.1.1 Model of the Twined Helical System
        2. 4.1.1.2 Properties of the Twined Helical System
        3. 4.1.1.3 Additionally Shielded Twined Helical System
      2. 4.1.2 Quasi-Symmetrical Helical System
        1. 4.1.2.1 Simplified Model of the Quasi-Symmetrical Helical System
        2. 4.1.2.2 Properties of the Quasi-Symmetrical Helical System
        3. 4.1.2.3 Analysis of the Quasi-Symmetrical Helical System Using the Advanced Model
    2. 4.2 Gutter-Type Helical and Meander Systems
      1. 4.2.1 Models and Properties of Homogeneous Gutter-Type Systems
      2. 4.2.2 Models and Properties of Nonhomogeneous Gutter Type Helical Systems
      3. 4.2.3 Models and Properties of Nonhomogeneous Meander Systems
    3. 4.3 Influence of Periodical Inhomogeneities on Properties of Slow-Wave Systems
    4. 4.4 Simulation of Meander Systems with Finite Length
      1. 4.4.1 Model of the Microstrip Delay Line with Limited Length
      2. 4.4.2 Results of Simulation and Measurements
    5. 4.5 Summary
    6. References
  12. 5 Investigation of Slow-Wave Systems Applying Versatile Electromagnetic Simulation and Design Tools
    1. 5.1 Model of a Helical Slow-Wave System
      1. 5.1.1 Calculation of Amplitude and Phase-Frequency Responses of a Helical Slow-Wave System
      2. 5.1.2 Calculation of Phase Delay Time and Characteristic Impedance
    2. 5.2 Investigation of the Twined Helical Slow-Wave System
      1. 5.2.1 Models of the Twined Helical System
      2. 5.2.2 Properties of the Twined System at Varying Widths of Helical Conductors
    3. 5.3 Input Impedance of Helical Systems
    4. 5.4 Resonances in the System of Shields and Possibilities of Avoiding Them
      1. 5.4.1 Model and Methodology of Investigation of the System
      2. 5.4.2 Application of Microwave Office for Investigation of Resonant Effects
      3. 5.4.3 Possibilities for Avoiding Resonant Effects
    5. 5.5 Application of Software for Three-Dimensional Modeling
      1. 5.5.1 Brief Information about MicroWave Studio Tools
      2. 5.5.2 Investigation of the Influence of Internal Anisotropic Shields on Properties of Helical Systems
      3. 5.5.3 Investigation of the Influence of Periodical Inhomogeneities
      4. 5.5.4 Investigation of the Meander Slow-Wave System
        1. 5.5.4.1 Simulation of an Asymmetrical Meander System
        2. 5.5.4.2 Simulation of a Symmetrical Meander System
        3. 5.5.4.3 Simulation of an Axially Symmetrical Meander System
    6. 5.6 Summary
    7. References
  13. 6 Investigation of Slow-Wave Structures Using Synergy of Various Methods
    1. 6.1 Simulation of an Inhomogeneous Meander Line
      1. 6.1.1 Simulation of Asymmetrical Inhomogeneities
      2. 6.1.2 Simulation of Inhomogeneities at the Sides of the Meander Electrode
      3. 6.1.3 Simulation of Terminals
    2. 6.2 Simulation and Properties of the H-Profile Meander System
      1. 6.2.1 Simulation Using the Multiconductor Line Method
      2. 6.2.2 Simulation Using the MicroWave Studio Software Package
    3. 6.3 Simulation of Symmetrically and Asymmetrically Shielded Helical Lines
      1. 6.3.1 Simulation Using the Multiconductor Line Method
      2. 6.3.2 Simulation Using the MicroWave Studio Package
    4. 6.4 Simulation of the Axially Symmetrical Helical Line
      1. 6.4.1 Simulation Using the Multiconductor Line Method
      2. 6.4.2 Simulation Using the MicroWave Studio Package
    5. 6.5 Summary
    6. References
  14. 7 Application of Slow-Wave Structures for Deflection of Electron Beams
    1. 7.1 Correction of Phase Distortions in Traveling-Wave Deflecting Systems
    2. 7.2 Electrical Field in the Deflecting System
      1. 7.2.1 Analytical Methods and Approximations
      2. 7.2.2 Distribution of Potential and Deflecting Field
      3. 7.2.3 Results of Calculations
      4. 7.2.4 Electric Field in a Twined Helical Deflecting System
    3. 7.3 Nonlinear Distortions in Traveling-Wave Cathode-Ray Tubes
      1. 7.3.1 Distortions of Harmonic Oscillations in Asymmetrical Helical Systems
      2. 7.3.2 Reduction of Nonlinear Frequency-Dependent Distortions
      3. 7.3.3 Distortions of Electrical Pulses
    4. 7.4 Simulation of Transitions to Traveling-Wave Deflecting Systems
      1. 7.4.1 Model of the Deflection Path
      2. 7.4.2 Calculation Results
      3. 7.4.3 Reduction of Frequency Distortions
    5. 7.5 Opportunities for Improvement of Dynamic Characteristics of Traveling-Wave Cathode-Ray Tubes and Their Signal Paths
      1. 7.5.1 Influence of Dispersion
      2. 7.5.2 Influence of Attenuation
      3. 7.5.3 Influence of Characteristic Impedance Variation
      4. 7.5.4 Influence of Peculiarities of a Deflecting Field
      5. 7.5.5 The Conjoint Influence of Various Factors
    6. 7.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  15. 8 Application of Slow-Wave Systems for Delay
    1. 8.1 Simulation of Meander Systems Containing Periodical Inhomogeneities
      1. 8.1.1 Analysis of Multiconductor Line at Irregular Step of Conductors
        1. 8.1.1.1 Model of Microstrip Multiconductor Line
        2. 8.1.1.2 Simulation of Multiconductor Line
      2. 8.1.2 Properties of Microstrip Meander Lines Containing Periodical Inhomogeneities
        1. 8.1.2.1 Dispersion Properties
        2. 8.1.2.2 Input Impedance
    2. 8.2 Properties of Packaged Microstrip Meander Systems
      1. 8.2.1 Dispersion Properties of Packaged Microstrip Meander Delay Lines
      2. 8.2.2 Dispersion Properties of Packaged Microstrip Meander Delay Lines Containing Periodical Inhomogeneities
      3. 8.2.3 Input Impedance of Packaged Microstrip Meander Delay Lines
      4. 8.2.4 Input Impedance of Packaged Microstrip Meander Delay Lines Containing Periodical Inhomogeneities
    3. 8.3 Characteristic Impedance of Meander Systems
    4. 8.4 Models of Meander Systems Containing Additional Shields
      1. 8.4.1 General Principles for Composing Models
      2. 8.4.2 Simplified Model of Microstrip Meander Systems Containing Digital Additional Shields
      3. 8.4.3 Simplified Model of Meander System Containing Interdigital Additional Shields
      4. 8.4.4 Calculation Results
    5. 8.5 Analysis of Wide-Band Meander Slow-Wave Systems Using an Advanced Model
      1. 8.5.1 Advanced Model of Wide Pass-Band Meander Systems
      2. 8.5.2 Properties of Microstrip Meander Systems Containing Digital Additional Shields
        1. 8.5.2.1 Influence of Digital Additional Shields on Dispersion Properties
        2. 8.5.2.2 Influence of Digital Additional Shields on Input Impedance
        3. 8.5.2.3 Dependence of Properties of Microstrip Meander Systems on Length of Digital Additional Shields
    6. 8.6 Wide-Band Modified Gutter-Type Delay Lines
    7. 8.7 Summary
    8. References
  16. 9 Computer-Aided Design of Electrodynamical Delay Lines
    1. 9.1 General Information
    2. 9.2 Methodology of Computer-Aided Design of Wide-Band Meander Systems
      1. 9.2.1 Algorithm of Computer-Aided Design
      2. 9.2.2 Input Data
      3. 9.2.3 Synthesis and Analysis of the Initial Structure
      4. 9.2.4 Improvement of the Structure
    3. 9.3 Principles of Synthesis of Initial Structure of Microstrip Meander Delay Line Containing Additional Shields
    4. 9.4 Algorithm for Synthesis of Microstrip Meander Delay Lines
    5. 9.5 Methodology and Algorithm for Design of Helical Delay Lines
      1. 9.5.1 Modeling of Helical Delay Lines
      2. 9.5.2 Algorithm for Synthesis of Helical Delay Lines
    6. 9.6 Summary
    7. References
  17. Index