DECONTAMINATION METHODS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Grand Lake Consulting LLC, Inc., Grand Lake, Colorado
Shaw Environmental & Infrastructure, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio
Greater Cincinnati Water Works, Cincinnati, Ohio
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio
Returning a water system to complete operation after a contamination event requires ex situ treatment of the contaminated water and in situ decontamination of the water system equipment and distribution system piping. The technologies and actions implemented will be a function of a large number of variables. Current research is discussed in the next section. Subsequently, applicable treatment/decontamination technologies are presented in a tabular form. That table includes technologies currently employed by water systems as well as applicable decontamination technologies employed in the nuclear industry.
2 SCIENTIFIC OVERVIEW
This article presents an assessment of developing and developed technologies for decontaminating municipal water system equipment, the distribution system itself, and contaminated water after a contamination event. The technology assessment is qualified by recognition of the substantial unpredictability of a purposeful contamination and the complexities surrounding returning the system to safe operation. Those complexities and uncertainties are discussed in the following Problem Definition section and ...