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Windows Malware Analysis Essentials by Victor Marak

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Signed numbers and complements

An annoying topic for many is negative numbers. Their representation in binary is a set of workaround techniques to represent negative numbers with the same data types and symbol set. How would you differentiate the values in that scenario? A binary pattern is by itself quite neutral to begin with. It is a representation of a sequence of symbols that have two possible values from the symbol set, which have a final resulting value based on a particular permutation pattern that denotes this value. In essence, the binary pattern could be a number, a picture, a text file, a video file, or so on. What a pattern constitutes is also dependent on who looks at it and how. Inherently, the pattern is quite ambiguous without ...

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