TCP Sliding Windows

To govern the amount of data that can be sent at any one time and to provide receiver-side flow control, data transfer between TCP peers is performed using a window. The window is the span of data on the byte stream that the receiver permits the sender to send. The sender can send only the bytes of the byte stream that lie within the window. New data can be sent only with the receiver’s permission. The window slides along the sender’s outbound byte stream and the receiver’s inbound byte stream.

The values of the Acknowledgment Number and Window fields in ACKs that the receiver sends determine the actual numbered bytes within the window. The Acknowledgment Number field indicates the next byte of data that the receiver expects ...

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