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Windows Server® 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services by Joseph Davies

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Sender-Side Flow Control

Receiver-side flow control is implemented through the send and receive windows. The receiver can inform the sender to stop sending data by reducing the advertised receive window to zero. However, once a non-zero receive window size is advertised, there is nothing in the TCP sliding window mechanism that prevents the sender from sending all possible segments in the send window. According to the TCP sliding window mechanism, the sender can immediately send all of the segments that fit within the receive window without waiting for any ACKs. Although this behavior is permitted, it also can lead to network congestion, especially when sending TCP segments across multiple routers.

To prevent the flooding of segments that fit within ...

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