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Wireless Communications & Networking by Vijay Garg

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CHAPTER 3 Radio Propagation and Propagation Path-Loss Models

3.1 Introduction

Exponential growth of mobile communications has increased interest in many topics in radio propagation. Much effort is now devoted to refine radio propagation path-loss models for urban, suburban, and other environments together with substantiation by field data. Radio propagation in urban areas is quite complex because it often consists of reflected and diffracted waves produced by multipath propagation. Radio propagation in open areas free from obstacles is the simplest to treat, but, in general, propagation over the earth and the water invokes at least one reflected wave.

For closed areas such as indoors, tunnels, and underground passages, no established models ...

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