List of fi gures
1.1 Traditional single-sink WSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Multi-sink WSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Typical WSAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4 Architecture of a sensor node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1 The HHA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1 The 16 frequency carriers used in each experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.2 Measurement scenario over the grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.3 PER as a function of the 16 channels over the grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.4 Average received power as a function of the 16 channels over the grass . . . . . 50
3.5 Measurement scenario over aspahlt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.6 PER as a function of the 16 channels over asphalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.7 Average received power as a function of the 16 channels over asphalt . . . . . . 52
3.8 Measurement scenario on grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.9 PER as a function of the 16 channels on grass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.10 Average received power as a function of the 16 channels on grass . . . . . . . . . 53
3.11 Average received power over grass at different height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.12 Average received power over asphalt at different height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.13 Node placement for urban environment characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.14 Node placement for measurements in a parking lot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.15 Average received power with antenna at 6 cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.16 Average received power with antenna at 80 cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
3.17 Average received power with antenna at 180 cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.18 Map of the indoor environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.19 Receiving position points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.20 Average received power for the different positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.21 The scenario considered for UWB measurements at WiLAB,
University of Bologna , Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.22 Example of measured multipath profi le at receiving location 1.
(LOS condition) Sampling interval 41.3 ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.23 Example of measured multipath profi le at receiving location 10.
(NLOS condition) Sampling interval 41.3 ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.1 Poisson Point Process in a fi nite area A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.2 Link connectivity with or without shadowing effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.3 Example of nodes connection after two hops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
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