All our examples in Chapter 1 used the function as the individual, indivisible unit of operations, whereby inside the function, statements run in predictable order (above the compiler level!), but at the function-ordering level, events (aka async function invocations) can happen in a variety of orders.
In all these cases, the function is acting as a callback, because it serves as the target for the event loop to “call back into” the program, whenever that item in the queue is processed.
As you no doubt have observed, callbacks are by far the most common way that asynchrony in JS programs is expressed and managed. Indeed, the callback is the most fundamental async pattern in the language.
Except…callbacks are not without their shortcomings. ...