Look out honey ’cause I’m using technology.
—Iggy Pop, “Search and Destroy”
Instead, the C ecosystem has expanded outside of the standard, which means that knowing how to easily call functions from common but not-ISO-standard libraries is essential if you want to get past doing textbook exercises. Unfortunately, this is the point where most textbooks taper off and leave you to work it out for yourself, which is why you can find C detractors who will say self-dissonant things like C is 40 years old, so you have to write every procedure from scratch in it—they never worked out how to link to a library.
Here is the agenda for the chapter:
Setting up the requisite tools. This is much easier than it was in the dark days when you had to hunt for every component. You can set up a full build system with all the frills in maybe 10 or 15 minutes (plus all the download time to load so much good stuff).
How to compile a C program. Yes, you know how to do this, but we
need a setup that has hooks for the libraries and their locations; just
myfile.c doesn’t cut it anymore.
Make is just about the simplest system to
facilitate compiling programs, so it provides a good model for
discussion. I’ll show you the smallest possible makefile that offers
enough room to grow.
Whatever system we use will be based on a small set of environment-like variables, so I’ll discuss what they do and how to set them. Once we have all that compilation machinery in place, adding new libraries will be an easy question of adjusting the variables we’ve already set up.
As a bonus, we can use everything up to this point to set up a still simpler system for compilation, which will let us cut and paste code onto the command prompt.
A special note to IDE users: you may not be a make user, but this section will nonetheless be relevant to you, because for every recipe that make executes when compiling code, your IDE has an analogous recipe. If you know what make is doing, you’ll have an easy time tweaking your IDE.
I bring up package managers for several reasons: first, some of you may not have the basics installed. For you, I put this section first in the book, because you need to get these tools, and fast. A good package manager will have you set up quite rapidly with a full POSIX subsystem, compilers for every language you’ve ever heard of, a half-decent array of games, the usual office productivity tools, a few hundred C libraries, et cetera.
Second, as C authors, the package manager is a key means by which we can get libraries for folding into our work.
Third, if you are making the jump from being somebody who downloads packages to being somebody producing a package, this book will take you halfway, showing you how to prepare your package for easy autoinstallation, so that when the administrator of a package repository decides to include your code in the repository, he or she will have no problem building the final package.
If you are a Linux user, you set up your computer with a package manager and have already seen how easy the software obtention process can be. For Windows users, I’ll cover Cygwin in detail. Mac users have several options, such as Fink and Macports. All the Mac options depend on Apple’s Xcode package, typically available on the OS install CD (or directory of installable programs, depending on the vintage), or by registering as a developer with Apple.
What packages will you need? Here’s a quick rundown of the C development basics. Because every system has a different organization scheme, some of these may be bundled differently, installed by default in a base package, or oddly named. When in doubt about a package, install it, because we’re past the days when installing too many things could somehow cause system instability or slowdown. However, you probably don’t have the bandwidth (or maybe even the disk space) to install every package on offer, so some judgment will be required. If you find that you are missing something, you can always go back and get it later. Packages to definitely get:
Emacs and vim are the hardcore geek’s favorites. Emacs is very inclusive (the E is for extensible); vim is more minimalist and is very friendly to touch typists. If you expect to spend hundreds of hours staring at a text editor, it is worth taking the time to learn one of them.
In later chapters, I’ll get to these more heavy-duty tools:
Autotools: Autoconf, Automake, libtool
Alternate shells, such as the Z shell.
And, of course, there are the C libraries that will save you the trouble of reinventing the wheel (or, to be more metaphorically accurate, reinventing the locomotive). You might want more, but here are the libraries that will be used over the course of this book:
There is no consensus on library package naming schemes, and you
will have to work out how your package manager likes to dissect a single
library into subparts. There is typically one package for users and a
second for authors who will use the library in their own work, so be sure
to select both the base package and the
-devel packages. Some systems separate
documentation into yet another package. Some require that you download
debugging symbols separately, in which case gdb should lead you through
the steps the first time you run it on something lacking debugging
If you are using a POSIX system, then after you’ve installed the preceding items, you will have a complete development system and are ready to get coding. For Windows users, we’ll take a brief detour to understand how the setup interacts with the main Windows system.
So I need to take a little time out to discuss how to set up a Windows box for writing code in C. If you aren’t writing on a Windows box now, feel free to skip this segment and jump to Which Way to the Library?.
This section is not intended as a rant about Microsoft, and I am not going to speculate on Microsoft’s motives or business strategies. However, if you want to get work done in C on a Windows box, you need to know the state of affairs and what you can do to get going.
Because C and Unix coevolved, it’s hard to talk about one and not the other. I think it’s easier to start with POSIX. Also, those of you who are trying to compile code on a Windows box that you wrote elsewhere will find this to be the most natural route.
The Windows family of operating systems
POSIX compliance doesn’t mean that a system has to look and feel
like a Unix box. For example, the typical Mac user has no idea that he
or she is using a standard BSD system with an attractive frontend, but
those in the know can go to the Accessories → Utilities folder, open the Terminal program,
make to their hearts’ content.
Further, I doubt that many systems live up to 100% of the
standard’s requirements (like having a Fortran `77 compiler). For our
purposes, we need a shell that can behave like the barebones POSIX
shell, a handful of utilities (
C99 compiler, and additions to the standard C library such as
iconv. These can be added as a side note to
the main system. The package manager’s underlying scripts, Autotools,
and almost every other attempt at portable coding will rely on these
tools to some extent, so even if you don’t want to stare at a command
prompt all day, these tools will be handy to have for
On server-class OSes and the full-featured editions of Windows 7, Microsoft offers what used to be called INTERIX and is now called the Subsystem for Unix-based Application (SUA), which provides the usual POSIX system calls, the Korn shell, and gcc. The subsystem is typically not provided by default but can be installed as an add-on component. But the SUA is not available for other current editions of Windows and will not be available for Windows 8, so we can’t depend on Microsoft to provide a POSIX subsystem for its operating systems.
If you were to rebuild Cygwin from scratch, this would be your agenda:
Write a C library for Windows that provides all the POSIX functions. This will have to smooth over some Windows/POSIX incongruities, such as how Windows has distinct drives like C: while POSIX has one unified filesystem. In this case, alias C: as /cygdrive/c, D: as /cygdrive/d, and so on.
Now that you can compile POSIX-standard programs by linking to
your library, do so: generate Windows versions of
python, and so on.
Once you have hundreds of programs and libraries built, set up a package manager that allows users to select the elements they want to install.
As a user of Cygwin, all you have to do is download the package manager from the setup link at Cygwin’s website and pick packages. You will certainly want the preceding list, plus a decent terminal (try mintty, or install the X subsystem and use the xterm), but you will see that virtually all of the luxuries familiar from a development system are there somewhere. Now you can get to compiling C code.
Microsoft provides a C++ compiler, in the form of Visual Studio, which has an ANSI C compatibility mode. This is the only means of compiling C code currently provided by Microsoft. Many representatives from the company have made it clear that C99 support (let alone C11 support) is not forthcoming. Visual Studio is the only major compiler that is still stuck on C89, so we’ll have to find alternative offerings elsewhere.
If you are compiling under Cygwin, then your program will depend
on its library of POSIX functions, cygwin1.dll
(whether your code actually includes any POSIX calls or not). If you are
running your program on a box with Cygwin installed, then you obviously
have no problem. Users will be able to click on the executable and run
it as expected, because the system should be able to find the Cygwin
DLL. A program compiled under
Cygwin can run on boxes that don’t have Cygwin installed if you
distribute cygwin1.dll with your code. On my
machine, this is
cygwin1.dll file has a GPL-like license (see The Legal Sidebar), in the sense that if you distribute the DLL
separately from Cygwin as a whole, then you are required to publish the
source code for your program.
If this is a problem, then you’ll have to find a way to recompile
without depending on cygwin1.dll, which means
dropping any POSIX-specific functions (like
popen) from your code and using MinGW, as
discussed later. You can use
to find out which DLLs your program depends on, and thus verify that
your executable does or does not link to
If your program doesn’t need the POSIX functions, then you can use MinGW (Minimalist GNU for Windows), which provides a standard C compiler and some basic associated tools. MSYS is a companion to MinGW that provides a shell and other useful utilities.
The lack of POSIX-style amenities is not the real problem with MinGW. MSYS provides a POSIX shell, or leave the command prompt behind entirely and try Code::blocks, an IDE that uses MinGW for compilation on Windows. Eclipse is a much more extensive IDE that can also be configured for MinGW, though that requires a bit more setup.
Or if you are more comfortable at a POSIX command prompt, then set up Cygwin anyway, get the packages providing the MinGW versions of gcc, and use those for compilation instead of the POSIX-linking default version of Cygwin gcc.
If you haven’t already met Autotools, you’ll meet it soon. The
signature of a package built using Autotools is its three-command
./configure; make; make
install. MSYS provides sufficient machinery for such packages
to stand a good chance of working. Or if you have downloaded the
packages to build from Cygwin’s command prompt, then you can use the
following to set up the package to use Cygwin’s Mingw32 compiler for
producing POSIX-free code:
make; make install as
Once you’ve compiled under MinGW, via either command-line compilation or Autotools, you’ve got a native Windows binary. Because MinGW knows nothing of cygwin1.dll, and your program makes no POSIX calls anyway, you’ve now got an executable program that is a bona fide Windows program, that nobody will know you compiled from a POSIX environment.
No, the real problem with MinGW is the paucity of precompiled libraries. If you want to be free of cygwin1.dll, then you can’t use the version of libglib.dll that ships with Cygwin. You’ll need to recompile GLib from source to a native Windows DLL—but GLib depends on GNU’s gettext for internationalization, so you’ll have to build that library first. Modern code depends on modern libraries, so you may find yourself spending a lot of time setting up the sort of things that in other systems are a one-line call to the package manager. We’re back to the sort of thing that makes people talk about how C is 40 years old, so you need to write everything from scratch.
So, there are the caveats. Microsoft has walked away from the conversation, leaving others to implement a post-grunge C compiler and environment. Cygwin does this and provides a full package manager with enough libraries to do some or all of your work, but it is associated with a POSIX style of writing and Cygwin’s DLL. If that is a problem, you will need to do more work to build the environment and the libraries that you’ll need to write decent code.
Set a variable listing the compiler flags.
Set a variable listing the libraries to link to. The half-step is that you sometimes have to set only one variable for linking while compiling, and sometimes have to set two for linking at compile time and runtime.
Set up a system that will use these variables to orchestrate the compilation.
To use a library, you have to tell the compiler that you will be
importing functions from the library twice: once for the compilation and
once for the linker. For a library in a standard location, the two
declarations happen via an
the text of the program and a
on the compiler line.
Example 1-1 presents a quick sample program that does
some amusing math (for me, at least; if the statistical jargon is Greek to
you, that’s OK). The C99-standard error function,
erf(x), is closely related to the
integral from zero to x of the Normal distribution
with mean zero and standard deviation √2. Here, we use
erf to verify an area popular among
statisticians (the 95% confidence interval for a standard
large-n hypothesis test). Let us name this file
"The integral of a Normal(0, 1) distribution "
"between -1.96 and 1.96 is: %g
#include lines should be
familiar to you. The compiler will paste math.h and
stdio.h into the code file here, and thus paste in
sqrt. The declaration in
math.h doesn’t say anything about what
erf does, only that it takes in a
double and returns a
double. That’s enough information for the
compiler to check the consistency of our usage and produce an object file
with a note telling the computer: once you get to this note, go find the
erf function, and replace this note
erf’s return value.
The math functions found in math.h are split
off into their own library, and you will have to tell the linker about it
by adding an
-lm flag. Here, the
-l is the flag indicating that a
library needs to be linked in, and the library in this case has a
m. You get
printf for free, because there is an implicit
-lc asking the linker to link the
libc assumed at the end of the
linking command. Later, we’ll see GLib 2.0 linked in via
-lglib-2.0, the GNU Scientific Library get
-lgsl, and so on.
gcc erf.c -o erf -lm -g -Wall -O3 -std
So we’ve told the compiler to include math functions via an
#include in the program, and told the linker to
link to the math library via the
the command line.
-g adds symbols for
debugging. Without it, your debugger won’t be able to give you
variable or function names. They don’t slow down the program, and we
don’t care if the program is a kilobyte larger, so there’s little
reason to not use this. It works for gcc, Clang, and icc (Intel C
-std=gnu11 is gcc-specific,
and specifies that gcc should allow code conforming to the C11 and
POSIX standards. Otherwise, gcc will count certain now-valid bits of
syntax as invalid. As of this writing, some systems still predate
C11, in which case, use
-std=gnu99. This is gcc only; everybody
else switched to C99 being the default a long time ago. The POSIX
standard specifies that
present on your system, so the compiler-agnostic version of the
above line would be:
c99 erf.c -o erf -lm -g -Wall -O3
the following makefiles, I achieve this effect by setting the
c99 is a
specially-hacked version of
gcc, and is probably not what you want.
If you have an undesirable version of
c99 or it is missing entirely, make your
own. Put a file named
the directory at the head of your path with the text:
-O3 indicates optimization
level three, which tries every trick known to build faster code. If,
when you run the debugger, you find that too many variables have
been optimized out for you to follow what’s going on, then change
-O0. This will be a
common tweak in the
variable, later. This works for gcc, Clang, and icc.
Use your compiler warnings, always. You may be fastidious and
know the C standard inside out, but you aren’t more fastidious or
knowledgeable than your compiler. Old C textbooks filled pages
admonishing you to watch out for the difference between
or to check that all variables are initialized before use. As a more
modern textbook author, I have it easy, because I can summarize all
those admonishments into one single tip: use your compiler warnings,
If your compiler advises a change, don’t second-guess it or put
off the fix. Do everything necessary to (1) understand why you got a
warning and (2) fix your code so that it compiles with zero warnings
and zero errors. Compiler messages are famously obtuse, so if you are
having trouble with step (1), paste the warning message into your
search engine to see how many thousands of others were confounded by
this warning before you. You may want to add
-Werror to your compiler flags so your
compiler will treat warnings as errors.
I’ve got over 700,000 files on my hard drive, and one of them has
the declarations for
erf, and another is the object file
holding the compiled functions. (You can try
find / -type f | wc -l to get a rough file
count on any POSIX-standard system.) The compiler needs to know in which
directories to look to find the correct header and object file, and the
problem will only get more complex when we use libraries that are not
part of the C standard.
The operating system vendor may define a standard directory or two where libraries are installed by the vendor.
There may be a directory for the local sysadmin to install packages that shouldn’t be overwritten on the next OS upgrade from the vendor. The sysadmin might have a specially hacked version of a library that should override the default version.
Users typically don’t have the rights to write to these locations, and so should be able to use libraries in their home directories.
The OS-standard location typically causes no problems, and the compiler should know to look in those places to find the standard C library, as well as anything installed alongside it. The POSIX standard refers to these directories as “the usual places.”
But for the other stuff, you have to tell the compiler where to look. This is going to get Byzantine: there is no standard way to find libraries in nonstandard locations, and it rates highly on the list of things that frustrate people about C. On the plus side, your compiler knows how to look in the usual locations, and library distributors tend to put things in the usual locations, so you might never need to specify a path manually. On another plus side, there are a few tools to help you with specifying paths. And on one last plus side, once you have located the nonstandard locations on your system, you can set them in a shell or makefile variable and never think about them again.
Let us say that you have a library named Libuseful installed on
your computer, and you know that its various files were put in the
/usr/local/ directory, which is the location
officially intended for your sysadmin’s local libraries. You already put
#include <useful.h> in your
code; now you have to put this on the command line:
gcc -I/usr/local/include use_useful.c -o use_useful -L/usr/local/lib -luseful
gcc specific.o -lbroad -lgeneral
Any other ordering, such as
-lbroad -lgeneral specific.o, will probably fail. You can
think of the linker looking at the first item,
specific.o, and writing down a list of
unresolved function, structure, and variable names. Then it goes to
the next item,
searches for the items on its still-missing list, all the while
potentially adding new unresolved items, then checking
-lgeneral for those items still on the
missing list. If there are names still unlocated by the end of the
list (including that implicit
at the end), then the linker halts and gives what is left of its
missing-items list to the user.
OK, back to the location problem: where is the library that you want to link to? If it was installed via the same package manager that you used to install the rest of your operating system, then it is most likely in the usual places, and you don’t have to worry about it.
You may have a sense of where your own local libraries tend to be, such as /usr/local or /sw or /opt. You no doubt have on hand a means of searching the hard drive, such as a search tool on your desktop or the POSIX:
find /usr -name
to search /usr for files with names beginning
with libuseful. When you find Libuseful’s shared
object file is in
headers are almost certainly in
Everybody else finds hunting the hard drive for libraries to be
annoying, too, and
addresses this by maintaining a repository of the flags and locations
that packages self-report as being necessary for compilation. Type
pkg-config on your command line; if
you get an error about specifying package names, then great, you have
pkg-config and can use it to do the
research for you. For example, on my PC, typing these two commands on
the command line:
pkg-config --libs gsl libxml-2.0 pkg-config --cflags gsl libxml-2.0
gives me these two lines of output:
-lgsl -lgslcblas -lm -lxml2 -I/usr/include/libxml2
These are exactly the flags I need to compile using GSL and
-l flags reveal that GNU
Scientific Library depends on a Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS)
library, and the GSL’s BLAS library depends on the standard math
library. It seems that all the libraries are in the usual places,
because there are no
-L flags, but
indicates the special location for LibXML2’s header files.
`pkg-config --cflags --libs gsl libxml-2.0
`-o specific specific.c
the compiler sees:
gcc -I/usr/include/libxml2 -lgsl -lgslcblas -lm -lxml2 -o specific specific.c
pkg-config does a lot of the
work for us, but it is not sufficiently standard that we can expect
everybody has it or that every library is registered with it. If you
pkg-config, then you’ll
have to do this sort of research yourself, by reading the manual for
your library or searching your disk as we saw previously.
There are often environment variables for paths, such as
C_INCLUDE_PATH. You would set them in your
.bashrc or other such user-specific
list of environment variables. They are hopelessly nonstandard—gcc on
Linux and gcc on the Mac use different variables, and any other
compiler may use others still. I find that it’s easier to set these
paths on a per-project basis in the makefile or its equivalent, using
-L flags. If you prefer these path
variables, check the end of your compiler’s manpage for the list of
relevant variables for your situation.
pkg-config, the need
for something that will assemble all this for us is increasingly
apparent. Each element is easy enough to understand, but it is a long,
mechanical list of tedious parts.
Static libraries are linked by the compiler by effectively copying the contents of the library into the final executable. So the program itself works as a more-or-less standalone system. Shared libraries are linked to your program at run-time, meaning that we have the same problem with finding the library that we had at compile time all over again at runtime. What is worse, users of your program may have this problem.
If the library is in one of the usual locations, life is good and the system will have no problem finding the library at runtime. If your library is in a nonstandard path, then you need to find a way to modify the runtime search path for libraries. Options:
The most likely reason for needing to modify this search path
is if you are keeping libraries in your home directory because you
don’t have (or don’t want to make use of) root access. If you are
installing all of your libraries into libpath,
then set the environment variable
LD_LIBRARY_PATH. This is typically done in
your shell’s startup script (
.zshrc, or whatever is appropriate),
There are those who warn against overuse of the
LD_LIBRARY_PATH (what if somebody puts a
malicious impostor library in the path, thus replacing the real
library without your knowledge?), but if all your libraries are in
one place, it is not unreasonable to add one directory under your
ostensible control to the path.
to the subsequent makefile. The
-L flag tells the compiler where to search
for libraries to resolve symbols; the
-Wl flag passes its flags through from
gcc/Clang/icc to the linker, and the linker embeds the given
-R into the runtime search path
for libraries to link to. Unfortunately,
pkg-config often doesn’t know about
runtime paths, so you may need to enter these things
The makefile provides a resolution to all this endless tweaking. It is basically an organized set of variables and shell scripts. The POSIX-standard make program reads the makefile for instructions and variables, and then assembles the long and tedious command lines for us. After this segment, there will be little reason to call the compiler directly.
In Makefiles vs. Shell Scripts, I’ll cover a few more details about the makefile; here, I’m going to show you the smallest practicable makefile that will compile a basic program that depends on a library. Here it is, all six lines of it:
program_nameOBJECTS= CFLAGS = -g -Wall -O3 LDLIBS= CC=c99 $(P): $(OBJECTS)
Once ever: Save this (with the name
makefile) in the same directory as your
.c files. If you are using GNU Make, you have the
option of capitalizing the name to Makefile if
you feel that doing so will help it to stand out from the other files.
Set your program’s name on the first line (use
Every time you need to recompile: Type
Your Turn: Here’s the world-famous hello.c program, in two lines:
Save that and the preceding makefile to a directory, and try the previous steps to get the program compiled and running.
We’ll get to the actual functioning of the makefile soon, but five out of six lines of this makefile are about setting variables (most of which are currently set to be blank), indicating that we should take a moment to consider environment variables in a little more detail.
Historically, there have been two main threads of shell grammar:
one based primarily on the Bourne shell, and another based primarily
on the C shell. The C shell has a slightly different syntax for
set CFLAGS="-g -Wall -O3” to set
the value of
CFLAGS. But the POSIX
standard is written around the Bourne-type variable-setting syntax, so
that is what I focus on through the rest of this book.
The shell and
make use the
$ to indicate the value of a
variable, but the shell uses
make wants any variable names longer
than one character in parens:
). So, given the preceding makefile,
$(P): $(OBJECTS) will be equivalent to
Set the variable from the shell before calling
make, and export the
variable, meaning that when the shell spawns a child process, it has
the variable in its list of environment variables. To set
CFLAGS from a POSIX-standard command
'-g -Wall -O3'
At home, I omit the first line in this makefile,
and instead set it once per session via
program_name, which means I
have to edit the makefile itself still less frequently.
You can put these export commands in your shell’s startup
.zshrc. This guarantees that every time
you log in or start a new shell, the variable will be set and
exported. If you are confident that your
CFLAGS will be the same every time, you
can set them here and never think about them again.
You can export a variable for a single command by putting the
assignment just before the command. The
env command lists the environment
variables it knows about, so when you run the following:
=kakhi env | grep PANTS
you should see the appropriate variable and its value. This is why the shell won’t let you put spaces around the equals sign: the space is how it distinguishes between the assignment and the command.
Using this form sets and exports the given variables for one
line only. After you try this on the command line, try running
env | grep PANTS again to verify
PANTS is no longer an
Feel free to specify as many variables as you’d like:
"ficus fern"env | grep
This trick is a part of the shell specification’s simple command description, meaning that the assignment needs to come before an actual command. This will matter when we get to noncommand shell constructs. Writing:
will fail with an obscure syntax error. The correct form is:
=val ./program_using_VAR ;
As in the earlier makefile, you can set the variable at the
head of the makefile, with the lines like
CFLAGS=.... In the makefile, you can have
spaces around the equals sign without anything breaking.
make will let you set
variables on the command line, independent of the shell. Thus, these
two lines are close to equivalent:
"-g -Wall"Set a makefile variable.
"-g -Wall"make Set an environment variable that only make and its children see.
All of these means are equivalent, as far as your makefile is
concerned, with the exception that child programs called by
make will know new environment variables but
won’t know any makefile variables.
The name of the file that caused this target to get
triggered and made. If we are making prog.o,
it is probably because prog.c has recently
been modified, so
Setting the variables aside, segments of the makefile have the form:
If the target gets called, via the command
the dependencies are checked. If the target is a file, the dependencies
are all files, and the target is newer than the dependencies, then the
file is up-to-date and there’s nothing to do. Otherwise, the processing
of the target gets put on hold, the dependencies are run or generated,
probably via another target, and when the dependency scripts are all
finished, the target’s script gets executed.
For example, before this was a book, it was a series of tips
posted to a blog (at http://modelingwithdata.org).
Every blog post had an HTML and PDF version, all generated via LaTeX.
I’m omitting a lot of details for the sake of a simple example (like the
many options for
here’s the sort of makefile one could write for the process.
If you are copying any of these makefile snippets from a version on your screen or on paper to a file named makefile, don’t forget that the whitespace at the head of each line must be a tab, not spaces. Blame POSIX.
all: html doc publish doc: pdflatex
).tex html: latex -interaction batchmode
).tex publish: scp
f on the command line via
a command like
When I then type
make on the command
line, the first target,
checked. That is, the command
itself is equivalent to
first_target. That depends on
those targets get called in sequence. If I know it’s not yet ready to
copy out to the world, then I can call
html doc and do only those steps.
In the simple makefile from earlier, we had only one target/dependency/script group. For example:
This follows a sequence of dependencies and scripts similar to
what my blogging makefile did, but the scripts are implicit. Here,
P=domath is the program to be
compiled, and it depends on the object files
addition.o and subtraction.o.
Because addition.o is not listed as a target,
make uses an implicit rule, listed
below, to compile from the .c to the
.o file. Then it does the same for
subtraction.o and domath.o
make implicitly assumes
domath depends on
domath.o given the setup here). Once all the
objects are built, we have no script to build the
$(P) target, so GNU
make fills in its default script for linking
.o files into an executable.
$(CC) variable represents
your C compiler; The POSIX standard specifies a default of
CC=c99, but current editions of GNU
CC=cc, which is typically a link to
gcc. In the minimal makefile at the head of
$(CC) is explicitly set
$(CFLAGS) is set to the list of flags
$(LDFLAGS) is unset and
therefore replaced with nothing. So if
make determines that it needs to produce
your_program.o, then this is the command that
will be run, given that makefile:
c99 -g -Wall -O3 -o
Recall that order matters in the linker, so we will need two linker variables. In the previous example, we needed:
cc specific.o -lbroad -lgeneral
as the relevant part of the linking command. Comparing the correct
compilation command to the recipe, we see that we need to set
LDLIBS=-lbroad -lgeneral. If we had set
LDFLAGS=-lbroad -lgeneral, then the
recipe would produce
cc -lbroad -lgeneral
specific.o, which is likely to fail. Notice that
LDFLAGS also appears in the recipe for
compilation from .c to .o
If you’d like to see the full list of default rules and
variables built in to your edition of
make -p >
So, that’s the game: find the right variables and set them in the makefile. You still have to do the research as to what the correct flags are, but at least you can write them down in the makefile and never think about them again.
Your Turn: Modify your makefile to compile erf.c.
If you use an IDE, or CMAKE, or any of the other alternatives to
make, you’re going to
be playing the same find-the-variables game. I’m going to continue
discussing the preceding minimal makefile, and you should have no
problem finding the corresponding variables in your IDE.
CFLAGS variable is an
ingrained custom, but the variable that you’ll need to set for the
linker changes from system to system. Even
LDLIBS isn’t POSIX-standard, but is what
LDLIBS variables are where we’re going to
hook all the compiler flags locating and identifying libraries. If
you have pkg-config, put the backticked calls here. For example, the
makefile on my system, where I use Apophenia and GLib for just about
everything, looks like:
`pkg-config --cflags apophenia glib-2.0
`-g -Wall -std
`pkg-config --libs apophenia glib-2.0
Or, specify the
-l flags manually, like:
/home/b/root/include-g -Wall -O3
After you add a library and its locations to the
CFLAGS lines and you know it works on your
system, there is little reason to ever remove it. Do you really care
that the final executable might be 10 kilobytes larger than if you
customized a new makefile for every program? That means you can
write one makefile summarizing where all the libraries are on your
system and copy it from project to project without any
If you have a second (or more) C file, add
.o, and so on to the
OBJECTS line (no commas, just spaces
between names) in the makefile at the head of this section.
make will use that to determine which
files to build and which recipes to run.
If you have a program that is one .c file, you may not need a makefile at all. In a directory with no makefile and erf.c from earlier, try using your shell to:
'-g -Wall -O3 -std=gnu11'
make use its
knowledge of C compilation to do the rest.
The GSL is packaged via Autotools, a set of tools that will prepare a library for use on any machine, by testing for every known quirk and implementing the appropriate workaround. Autotools is central to how code is distributed in the present day, and Packaging Your Code with Autotools will go into detail about how you can package your own programs and libraries with it. But for now, we can start off as users of the system and enjoy the ease of quickly installing useful libraries.
The GSL is often provided in precompiled form via package manager, but for the purposes of going through the steps of compilation, here’s how to get the GSL as source code and set it up, assuming you have root privileges on your computer.
wget ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gsl/gsl-1.15.tar.gz tar xvzf gsl-*gz
cdgsl-1.15 ./configure make sudo make install
Download the zipped archive. Ask your package manager to install
wget if you don’t have it, or type this URL into
Unzip the archive:
Determine the quirks of your machine. If the
configure step gives you an error about a
missing element, then use your package manager to obtain it and run
Install to the right location—if you have permissions.
If you are trying this at home, then you probably have root privileges, and this will work fine. If you are at work and using a shared server, the odds are low that you have superuser rights, so you won’t be able to provide the password needed to do the last step in the script as superuser. In that case, hold your breath until the next section.
Did it install? Example 1-3 provides a short program to try finding that 95% confidence interval using GSL functions; try it and see if you can get it linked and running:
"Area between [-1.96, 1.96]: %g
To use the library you just installed, you’ll need to modify the makefile of your library-using program to specify the libraries and their locations.
`pkg-config --libs gsl
=-lgsl -lgslcblas -lm
If it didn’t install in a standard location and
pkg-config is not available, you will need to
add paths to the heads of these definitions, such as
You may have noticed the caveats in the last section about how you have to have root privileges to install to the usual locations on a POSIX system. But you may not have root access if you are using a shared computer at work, or if you have an especially controlling significant other.
The first step is to simply create the directory:
I already have a ~/tech directory where I keep
all my technical logistics, manuals, and code snippets, so I made a
~/tech/root directory. The name doesn’t matter, but
~/root as the dummy directory
Your shell replaces the tilde with the full path to your home
directory, saving you a lot of typing. The POSIX standard only requires
that the shell do this at the beginning of a word or just after a colon
(which you’d need for a path-type variable), but most shells expand
mid-word tildes as well. Other programs, like
make, may or may not recognize the tilde as
your home directory.
By putting the bin subdirectory of your new
directory before the original
will be searched first, and your copy of any programs will be found first.
Thus, you can substitute in your preferred version of any programs that
are already in the standard shared directories of the system.
For libraries you will fold into your C programs, note the new paths to search in the preceding makefile:
/home/your_home/root/lib(plus the other flags, like -lgsl -lm ...)
/home/your_home/root/include(plus -g -Wall -O3 ...)
The last step is to install programs in your new root. If you have
the source code and it uses Autotools, all you have to do is add
in the right place:
; make; make install
You didn’t need
sudo to do the
install step, because everything is now in territory you control.
Because the programs and libraries are in your home directory and have no more permissions than you do, your sysadmin can’t complain that they are an imposition on others. If your sysadmin complains anyway, then, as sad as it may be, it might be time to break up.
Set a variable expressing compiler flags.
Set a variable expressing linker flags, including a
-l flag for every library that you
make or your IDE’s
recipes to convert the variables into full compile and link
The remainder of this chapter will do all this one last time, using an absolutely minimal setup: just the shell. If you are a kinetic learner who picked up scripting languages by cutting and pasting snippets of code into the interpreter, you’ll be able to do the same with pasting C code onto your command prompt.
gcc -include stdio.h
is equivalent to putting
at the head of your C file; similarly for
clang -include stdio.h.
By adding that to our compiler invocation, we can finally write hello.c as the one line of code it should be:
which compiles fine via:
gcc -include stdio.h hello.c -o hi --std
=gnu99 -Wall -g -O3
or shell commands like:
'-g -Wall -include stdio.h'
=c99 make hello
This tip about
compiler-specific and involves moving information from the code to the
compilation instructions. If you think this is bad form, well, skip this
There was once a time when compilers took several seconds or
minutes to compile even relatively simple programs, so there was
human-noticeable benefit to reducing the work the compiler has to do. My
current copies of stdio.h and
stdlib.h are each about 1,000 lines long (try
wc -l /usr/include/stdlib.h) and
time.h another 400, meaning that this seven-line
// Initialize RNG seed.
// Make one draw.
is actually a ~2,400-line program.
Your compiler doesn’t think 2,400 lines is a big deal anymore, and this compiles in under a second. So why are we spending time picking out just the right headers for a given program?
You will see examples using Glib later, with an
#include <glib.h> at the top. That
header includes 74 sub-headers, covering all the subsections of the Glib
library. This is good user interface design by the Glib team, because
those of us who don’t want to spend time picking just the right
subsections of the library can speed through the header paperwork in one
line, and those who want detailed control can pick and choose exactly
the headers they need. It would be nice if the C standard library had a
quick-and-easy header like this; it wasn’t the custom in the 1980s, but
it’s easy to make one.
Your Turn: Write yourself a single header, let us call it allheads.h, and throw in every header you’ve ever used, so it’ll look something like:
I can’t tell you exactly what it’ll look like, because I don’t know exactly what you use day to day.
Now that you have this aggregate header, you can just throw one:
on top of every file you write, and you’re done with thinking about headers. Sure, it will expand to perhaps 10,000 lines of extra code, much of it not relevant to the program at hand. But you won’t notice, and unused declarations don’t change the final executable.
Once you have a unified header, even a line like
#include <allheads.h> is extraneous if
you are a gcc or Clang user, because you can instead add
-include allheads.h to your
CFLAGS and never think about which
out-of-project headers to include again.
Headers also serve the purpose of limiting scope, but this is generally more important for functions and structures you wrote than those in the libraries. The purpose of limiting scope is not to keep the namespace small so the computer won’t overheat; it is to reduce cognitive load for you, the programmer. I’m guessing you’re not even familiar with most of the functions to be found in the libraries you are using, and if you don’t know about them, they can’t possibly be taking up cognitive load. Other languages don’t even make the distinction and heap on the keywords, like the R project, which has 752 words internally defined at startup.
Here documents are a feature of POSIX-standard shells that you can use for C, Python, Perl, or whatever else, and they will make this book much more useful and fun. Also, if you want to have a multilingual script, here documents are an easy way to do it. Do some parsing in Perl, do the math in C, then have Gnuplot produce the pretty pictures, and have it all in one text file.
"print 'hi.'"| python -
You could, in theory, put some lengthy scripts on the command line
echo, but you’ll quickly see that
there are a lot of small, undesired parsings going on—you might need
\"hi\" instead of
"hi", for example.
Thus, the here document, which does no parsing at all. Try this:
python - <<"XXXX" lines=2 print "\nThis script is %i lines long.\n" %(lines,) XXXX
"XXXX" is any string
"EOF" is also
"-----" looks good
as long as you get the dash count to match at top and bottom. When
the shell sees your chosen string alone on a line, it will stop
sending the script to the program’s stdin. That’s all the parsing
There’s also a variant that begins with
<<-. This variant removes all tabs
at the head of every line, so you can put a here document in an
indented section of a shell script without breaking the flow of
indentation. Of course, this would be disastrous for a Python here
As another variant, there’s a difference between
<<XXXX. In the second version, the
shell parses certain elements, which means you can have the shell
insert the value of
for you. The shell relies heavily on the
$ for its variables and other expansions;
$ is one of the few
characters on a standard keyboard that has no special meaning
to C. It’s as if the people who wrote Unix designed it from the ground up to make
it easy to write shell scripts that produce C code….
We’re not going to use the makefile, so we need a single compilation command. To make life less painful, let us alias it. Paste this onto your command line, or add it to your .bashrc, .zshrc, or wherever applicable:
"-g -Wall -include
alias go_c="c99 -xc -
allheads.h is the aggregate
header you’d put together earlier. Using the
-include flag means one less thing to
think about when writing the C code, and I’ve found that bash’s history
gets wonky when there are
#s in the C code.
On the compilation line, you’ll recognize the
to mean that instead of reading from a named file, use stdin. The
-xc identifies this as C code, because
gcc stands for GNU Compiler Collection, not GNU C
Compiler, and with no input filename ending in
tip it off, we have to be clear that this is not Java, Fortran,
Objective C, Ada, or C++ (and
similarly for Clang, even though its name is meant to invoke C
Whatever you did to customize the
CFLAGS in your makefile, do here.
Now we’re sailing, and can compile C code on the command line:
"Hello from the command line.\n"
We can use a here document to paste short C programs onto the command line, and write little test programs without hassle. Not only do you not need a makefile, you don’t even need an input file.
Don’t expect this sort of thing to be your primary mode of working. But cutting and pasting code snippets onto the command line can be fun, and being able to have a single step in C within a longer shell script is pretty fabulous.
 Cygwin is a project run by Red Hat, Inc., who will also allow users to purchase the right to not distribute their source code as per the GPL.
 Although MSYS, MinGW, and a few other elements are provided as packages, this handful of packages pales in comparison to the hundreds of packages provided by the typical package manager. Notably, precompiled libraries are not a one-click or one-command install. However, by the time you read this, my complaint may have been addressed, and there might be many more MinGW packages available.