ACCESS CONTROLS SHOULD NOT BE IMPLEMENTED RANDOMLY. A well-thought-out approach to access control implementation furthers the goals of an organization. In this chapter, we will discuss the reasons behind access controls in both the public and private sectors. In the public sector, access controls and the information they protect could save a soldier's life or keep the public infrastructure running smoothly. In business, or the private sector, access controls help protect valuable assets such as trade secrets. This chapter covers how information can have value, and what role secrecy and access controls play in protecting that value.