Addressing Measurement and Sponsor Biases in Observational Research
Researchers who design, implement, and analyze observational studies must address the potential for multiple types of bias. In this chapter, we focus on methods to minimize measurement and sponsor bias. Measurement bias occurs when there are differences in the evaluation of patient outcomes between the groups being compared. Sponsor bias is a vague concept that includes many systematic errors that may arise from the interest of the investigator or the sponsor to support a given treatment. The use of easy-to-administer, ...