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Ansible: Up and Running, 2nd Edition by Rene Moser, Lorin Hochstein

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Chapter 4. Variables and Facts

Ansible is not a full-fledged programming language, but it does have several programming language features, and one of the most important of these is variable substitution. This chapter presents Ansible’s support for variables in more detail, including a certain type of variable that Ansible calls a fact.

Defining Variables in Playbooks

The simplest way to define variables is to put a vars section in your playbook with the names and values of variables. Recall from Example 2-8 that we used this approach to define several configuration-related variables, like this:

vars:
  key_file: /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.key
  cert_file: /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt
  conf_file: /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
  server_name: localhost

Ansible also allows you to put variables into one or more files, using a section called vars_files. Let’s say we want to take the preceding example and put the variables in a file named nginx.yml instead of putting them right in the playbook. We would replace the vars section with a vars_files that looks like this:

vars_files:
 - nginx.yml

The nginx.yml file would look like Example 4-1.

Example 4-1. nginx.yml
key_file: /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.key
cert_file: /etc/nginx/ssl/nginx.crt
conf_file: /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
server_name: localhost

You’ll see an example of vars_files in action in Chapter 6 when we use it to separate out the variables that contain sensitive information.

As we discussed in Chapter 3, Ansible also lets you define variables associated with hosts or groups in the inventory file or in separate files that live alongside the inventory file.

Viewing the Values of Variables

For debugging, it’s often handy to be able to view the output of a variable. You saw in Chapter 2 how to use the debug module to print out an arbitrary message. We can also use it to output the value of the variable. It works like this:

- debug: var=myvarname

We’ll be using this form of the debug module several times in this chapter.

Registering Variables

Often, you’ll find that you need to set the value of a variable based on the result of a task. To do so, we create a registered variable using the register clause when invoking a module. Example 4-2 shows how to capture the output of the whoami command to a variable named login.

Example 4-2. Capturing the output of a command to a variable
- name: capture output of whoami command
  command: whoami
  register: login

In order to use the login variable later, we need to know the type of value to expect. The value of a variable set using the register clause is always a dictionary, but the specific keys of the dictionary are different, depending on the module that was invoked.

Unfortunately, the official Ansible module documentation doesn’t contain information about what the return values look like for each module. The module docs do often contain examples that use the register clause, which can be helpful. I’ve found the simplest way to find out what a module returns is to register a variable and then output that variable with the debug module.

Let’s say we run the playbook shown in Example 4-3.

Example 4-3. whoami.yml
- name: show return value of command module
  hosts: server1
  tasks:
    - name: capture output of id command
      command: id -un
      register: login
    - debug: var=login

The output of the debug module looks like this:

TASK: [debug var=login] *******************************************************
ok: [server1] => {
    "login": {
        "changed": true, 1
        "cmd": [ 2
            "id",
            "-un"
        ],
        "delta": "0:00:00.002180",
        "end": "2015-01-11 15:57:19.193699",
        "invocation": {
            "module_args": "id -un",
            "module_name": "command"
        },
        "rc": 0, 3
        "start": "2015-01-11 15:57:19.191519",
        "stderr": "", 4
        "stdout": "vagrant", 5
        "stdout_lines": [ 6
            "vagrant"
        ],
        "warnings": []
    }
}
1

The changed key is present in the return value of all Ansible modules, and Ansible uses it to determine whether a state change has occurred. For the command and shell module, this will always be set to true unless overridden with the changed_when clause, which we cover in Chapter 8.

2

The cmd key contains the invoked command as a list of strings.

3

The rc key contains the return code. If it is nonzero, Ansible will assume the task failed to execute.

4

The stderr key contains any text written to standard error, as a single string.

5

The stdout key contains any text written to standard out, as a single string.

6

The stdout_lines key contains any text written to split by newline. It is a list, and each element of the list is a line of output.

If you’re using the register clause with the command module, you’ll likely want access to the stdout key, as shown in Example 4-4.

Example 4-4. Using the output of a command in a task
- name: capture output of id command
  command: id -un
  register: login
- debug: msg="Logged in as user {{ login.stdout }}"

Sometimes it’s useful to do something with the output of a failed task. However, if the task fails, Ansible will stop executing tasks for the failed host. We can use the ignore_errors clause, as shown in Example 4-5, so Ansible does not stop on the error.

Example 4-5. Ignoring when a module returns an error
- name: Run myprog
  command: /opt/myprog
  register: result
  ignore_errors: True
- debug: var=result

The shell module has the same output structure as the command module, but other modules contain different keys. Example 4-6 shows the output of the apt module when installing a package that wasn’t present before.

Example 4-6. Output of apt module when installing a new package
ok: [server1] => {
    "result": {
        "changed": true,
        "invocation": {
            "module_args": "name=nginx",
            "module_name": "apt"
        },
        "stderr": "",
        "stdout": "Reading package lists...\nBuilding dependency tree...",
        "stdout_lines": [
            "Reading package lists...",
            "Building dependency tree...",
            "Reading state information...",
            "Preparing to unpack .../nginx-common_1.4.6-1ubuntu3.1_all.deb ...",
            ...
            "Setting up nginx-core (1.4.6-1ubuntu3.1) ...",
            "Setting up nginx (1.4.6-1ubuntu3.1) ...",
            "Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-0ubuntu6.3) ..."
        ]
    }
}

Example 4-7 shows the output of the apt module when the package is already present on the host.

Example 4-7. Output of apt module when package already present
ok: [server1] => {
    "result": {
        "changed": false,
        "invocation": {
            "module_args": "name=nginx",
            "module_name": "apt"
        }
    }
}

Note that the stdout, stderr, and stdout_lines keys are present in the output only when the package was not previously installed.

Caution

If your playbooks use registered variables, make sure you know the content of those variables, both for cases where the module changes the host’s state and for when the module doesn’t change the host’s state. Otherwise, your playbook might fail when it tries to access a key in a registered variable that doesn’t exist.

Facts

As you’ve already seen, when Ansible runs a playbook, before the first task runs, this happens:

GATHERING FACTS **************************************************
ok: [servername]

When Ansible gathers facts, it connects to the host and queries it for all kinds of details about the host: CPU architecture, operating system, IP addresses, memory info, disk info, and more. This information is stored in variables that are called facts, and they behave just like any other variable.

Here’s a simple playbook that prints out the operating system of each server:

- name: print out operating system
  hosts: all
  gather_facts: True
  tasks:
  - debug: var=ansible_distribution

Here’s what the output looks like for servers running Ubuntu and CentOS:

PLAY [print out operating system] *********************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [server1]
ok: [server2]

TASK: [debug var=ansible_distribution] ****************************************
ok: [server1] => {
    "ansible_distribution": "Ubuntu"
}
ok: [server2] => {
    "ansible_distribution": "CentOS"
}

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
server1                    : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0
server2                    : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0

You can consult the official Ansible documentation for a list of some of the available facts. I maintain a more comprehensive list of facts on GitHub.

Viewing All Facts Associated with a Server

Ansible implements fact collecting through the use of a special module called the setup module. You don’t need to call this module in your playbooks because Ansible does that automatically when it gathers facts. However, if you invoke it manually with the ansible command-line tool, like this:

$ ansible server1 -m setup

then Ansible will output all of the facts, as shown in Example 4-8.

Example 4-8. Output of setup module
server1 | success >> {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
            "10.0.2.15",
            "192.168.4.10"
        ],
        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [
            "fe80::a00:27ff:fefe:1e4d",
            "fe80::a00:27ff:fe67:bbf3"
        ],
(many more facts)

Note that the returned value is a dictionary whose key is ansible_facts and whose value is a dictionary that contains the name and value of the actual facts.

Viewing a Subset of Facts

Because Ansible collects many facts, the setup module supports a filter parameter that lets you filter by fact name by specifying a glob.1 For example:

$ ansible web -m setup -a 'filter=ansible_eth*'

The output looks like this:

web | success >> {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_eth0": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "eth0",
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "10.0.2.15",
                "netmask": "255.255.255.0",
                "network": "10.0.2.0"
            },
            "ipv6": [
                {
                    "address": "fe80::a00:27ff:fefe:1e4d",
                    "prefix": "64",
                    "scope": "link"
                }
            ],
            "macaddress": "08:00:27:fe:1e:4d",
            "module": "e1000",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "promisc": false,
            "type": "ether"
        },
        "ansible_eth1": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "eth1",
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "192.168.33.10",
                "netmask": "255.255.255.0",
                "network": "192.168.33.0"
            },
            "ipv6": [
                {
                    "address": "fe80::a00:27ff:fe23:ae8e",
                    "prefix": "64",
                    "scope": "link"
                }
            ],
            "macaddress": "08:00:27:23:ae:8e",
            "module": "e1000",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "promisc": false,
            "type": "ether"
        }
    },
    "changed": false
}

Any Module Can Return Facts

If you look closely at Example 4-8, you’ll see that the output is a dictionary whose key is ansible_facts. The use of ansible_facts in the return value is an Ansible idiom. If a module returns a dictionary that contains ansible_facts as a key, Ansible will create variable names in the environment with those values and associate them with the active host.

For modules that return facts, there’s no need to register variables, since Ansible creates these variables for you automatically. For example, the following tasks use the ec2_facts module to retrieve Amazon EC22 facts about a server and then print out the instance ID:

- name: get ec2 facts
  ec2_facts:

- debug: var=ansible_ec2_instance_id

The output looks like this.

TASK: [debug var=ansible_ec2_instance_id] *************************************
ok: [myserver] => {
    "ansible_ec2_instance_id": "i-a3a2f866"
}

Note that we do not need to use the register keyword when invoking ec2_facts, since the returned values are facts. Several modules ship with Ansible that return facts. You’ll see another one of them, the docker module, in Chapter 15.

Local Facts

Ansible provides an additional mechanism for associating facts with a host. You can place one or more files on the remote host machine in the /etc/ansible/facts.d directory. Ansible will recognize the file if it’s any of the following:

  • In .ini format

  • In JSON format

  • An executable that takes no arguments and outputs JSON on standard out

These facts are available as keys of a special variable named ansible_local.

For instance, Example 4-9 shows a fact file in .ini format.

Example 4-9. /etc/ansible/facts.d/example.fact
[book]
title=Ansible: Up and Running
author=Lorin Hochstein
publisher=O'Reilly Media

If we copy this file to /etc/ansible/facts.d/example.fact on the remote host, we can access the contents of the ansible_local variable in a playbook:

- name: print ansible_local
  debug: var=ansible_local
- name: print book title
  debug: msg="The title of the book is {{ ansible_local.example.book.title }}"

The output of these tasks looks like this:

TASK: [print ansible_local] ***************************************************
ok: [server1] => {
    "ansible_local": {
        "example": {
            "book": {
                "author": "Lorin Hochstein",
                "publisher": "O'Reilly Media",
                "title": "Ansible: Up and Running"
            }
        }
    }
}

TASK: [print book title] ******************************************************
ok: [server1] => {
    "msg": "The title of the book is Ansible: Up and Running"
}

Note the structure of value in the ansible_local variable. Because the fact file is named example.fact, the ansible_local variable is a dictionary that contains a key named example.

Using set_fact to Define a New Variable

Ansible also allows you to set a fact (effectively the same as defining a new variable) in a task by using the set_fact module. I often like to use set_fact immediately after register to make it simpler to refer to a variable. Example 4-10 demonstrates how to use set_fact so that a variable can be referred to as snap instead of snap_result.stdout.

Example 4-10. Using set_fact to simplify variable reference
- name: get snapshot id
  shell: >
    aws ec2 describe-snapshots --filters
    Name=tag:Name,Values=my-snapshot
    | jq --raw-output ".Snapshots[].SnapshotId"
  register: snap_result

- set_fact: snap={{ snap_result.stdout }}

- name: delete old snapshot
  command: aws ec2 delete-snapshot --snapshot-id "{{ snap }}"

Built-in Variables

Ansible defines several variables that are always available in a playbook; some of these variables are shown in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1. Built-in variables
Parameter Description

hostvars

A dict whose keys are Ansible hostnames and values are dicts that map variable names to values

inventory_hostname

Fully qualified domain name of the current host as known by Ansible (e.g., myhost.example.com)

inventory_hostname_short

Name of the current host as known by Ansible, without the domain name (e.g., myhost)

group_names

A list of all groups that the current host is a member of

groups

A dict whose keys are Ansible group names and values are a list of hostnames that are members of the group. Includes all and ungrouped groups: {"all": […], "web": […], "ungrouped": […]}

ansible_check_mode

A boolean that is true when running in check mode (see “Check Mode”)

ansible_play_batch

A list of the inventory hostnames that are active in the current batch (see “Running on a Batch of Hosts at a Time”)

ansible_play_hosts

A list of all of the inventory hostnames that are active in the current play

ansible_version

A dict with Ansible version info: {"full": 2.3.1.0", "major": 2, "minor": 3, "revision": 1, "string": "2.3.1.0"}

The hostvars, inventory_hostname, and groups variables merit some additional discussion.

hostvars

In Ansible, variables are scoped by host. It only makes sense to talk about the value of a variable relative to a given host.

The idea that variables are relative to a given host might sound confusing, since Ansible allows you to define variables on a group of hosts. For example, if you define a variable in the vars section of a play, you are defining the variable for the set of hosts in the play. But what Ansible is really doing is creating a copy of that variable for each host in the group.

Sometimes, a task that’s running on one host needs the value of a variable defined on another host. Say you need to create a configuration file on web servers that contains the IP address of the eth1 interface of the database server, and you don’t know in advance what this IP address is. This IP address is available as the ansible_eth1.ipv4.address fact for the database server.

The solution is to use the hostvars variable. This is a dictionary that contains all of the variables defined on all of the hosts, keyed by the hostname as known to Ansible. If Ansible has not yet gathered facts on a host, you will not be able to access its facts by using the hostvars variable, unless fact caching is enabled.3

Continuing our example, if our database server is db.example.com, then we could put the following in a configuration template:

{{ hostvars['db.example.com'].ansible_eth1.ipv4.address }}

This evaluates to the ansible_eth1.ipv4.address fact associated with the host named db.example.com.

inventory_hostname

The inventory_hostname is the hostname of the current host, as known by Ansible. If you have defined an alias for a host, this is the alias name. For example, if your inventory contains a line like this:

server1 ansible_host=192.168.4.10

then inventory_hostname would be server1.

You can output all of the variables associated with the current host with the help of the hostvars and inventory_hostname variables:

- debug: var=hostvars[inventory_hostname]

Groups

The groups variable can be useful when you need to access variables for a group of hosts. Let’s say we are configuring a load-balancing host, and our configuration file needs the IP addresses of all of the servers in our web group. Our configuration file contains a fragment that looks like this:

backend web-backend
{% for host in groups.web %}
  server {{ hostvars[host].inventory_hostname }} \
  {{ hostvars[host].ansible_default_ipv4.address }}:80
{% endfor %}

The generated file looks like this:

backend web-backend
  server georgia.example.com 203.0.113.15:80
  server newhampshire.example.com 203.0.113.25:80
  server newjersey.example.com 203.0.113.38:80

Setting Variables on the Command Line

Variables set by passing -e var=value to ansible-playbook have the highest precedence, which means you can use this to override variables that are already defined. Example 4-11 shows how to set the variable named token to the value 12345.

Example 4-11. Setting a variable from the command line
$ ansible-playbook example.yml -e token=12345

Use the ansible-playbook -e var=value method when you want to use a playbook as you would a shell script that takes a command-line argument. The -e flag effectively allows you to pass variables as arguments.

Example 4-12 shows a very simple playbook that outputs a message specified by a variable.

Example 4-12. greet.yml
- name: pass a message on the command line
  hosts: localhost
  vars:
    greeting: "you didn't specify a message"
  tasks:
    - name: output a message
      debug: msg="{{ greeting }}"

If we invoke it like this:

$ ansible-playbook greet.yml -e greeting=hiya

then the output looks like this:

PLAY [pass a message on the command line] *************************************

TASK: [output a message] ******************************************************
ok: [localhost] => {
    "msg": "hiya"
}

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
localhost                  : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0

If you want to put a space in the variable, you need to use quotes like this:

$ ansible-playbook greet.yml -e 'greeting="hi there"'

You have to put single quotes around the entire 'greeting="hi there"' so that the shell interprets that as a single argument to pass to Ansible, and you have to put double quotes around "hi there" so that Ansible treats that message as a single string.

Ansible also allows you to pass a file containing the variables instead of passing them directly on the command line by passing @filename.yml as the argument to -e; for example, say we have a file that looks like Example 4-13.

Example 4-13. greetvars.yml
greeting: hiya

Then we can pass this file to the command line like this:

$ ansible-playbook greet.yml -e @greetvars.yml

Precedence

We’ve covered several ways of defining variables, and it can happen that you define the same variable multiple times for a host, using different values. Avoid this when you can, but if you can’t, then keep in mind Ansible’s precedence rules. When the same variable is defined in multiple ways, the precedence rules determine which value wins.

The basic rules of precedence are as follows:

  1. (Highest) ansible-playbook -e var=value

  2. Task variables

  3. Block variables

  4. Role and include variables

  5. set_fact

  6. Registered variables

  7. vars_files

  8. vars_prompt

  9. Play variables

  10. Host facts

  11. host_vars set on a playbook

  12. group_vars set on a playbook

  13. host_vars set in the inventory

  14. group_vars set in the inventory

  15. Inventory variables

  16. In defaults/main.yml of a role4

In this chapter, we covered various ways to define and access variables and facts. The next chapter focuses on a realistic example of deploying an application.

1 A glob is what shells use to match file patterns (e.g., *.txt).

2 We’ll cover Amazon EC2 in more detail in Chapter 14.

3 See Chapter 11 for information about fact caching.

4 We’ll discuss roles in Chapter 7.

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