2.1 Introduction

Developing communication, instrumentation, sensors, biomedical, and data processing systems utilize a diversity of optical technology. Integrated optics is expected to complement the well-established technologies of microelectronics, optoelectronics, and fiber optics. The requirements for applying integrated optics technology to telecommunications have been explored extensively and are well documented [1]. Other applications include sensors for measuring rotation, electromagnetic fields, temperature, pressure, and many other phenomena. Areas that have received much recent attention include optical techniques for feeding and controlling GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), optical analog and ...

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