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Apprenticeship Patterns by Adewale Oshineye, Dave Hoover

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Sweep the Floor

In the craft tradition, newcomers start as apprentices to a master craftsman. They start by contributing to the simpler tasks, and as they learn and become more skilled, they slowly graduate to larger, more complex tasks.

Pete McBreen, Software Craftsmanship


You are a new apprentice on a project.


You’re unsure of your place on the team, and the team is unsure of you. You wish to find a means of contributing to the team’s work, earning the team’s trust, and growing in stature as a craftsman.


Volunteer for simple, unglamorous, yet necessary, tasks. This is a good way to contribute to the team’s success early on by showing that you can do a high-quality job even when it doesn’t seem to matter. Of course, skimping on quality in the unglamorous portions of any project often leads to trouble later on, when it turns out that the unglamorous parts of the project are vitally important.

Unlike Paul, most apprentices won’t literally be sweeping the floor. However, the tasks you volunteer for will matter just as much to the ongoing health of the team.

Examples of these tasks include maintaining the build system, production support, responding to maintenance requests, bug fixing, code review, eliminating technical debt, setting up the project wiki, updating documentation, acting as a sounding board for other people’s ideas, and so on. Typically, you’ll want to focus on the edges of the system where there is less risk, rather than the core where there are usually many dependencies and lots of complexity. Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger observed apprentices in diverse industries and found that “a newcomer’s tasks tend to be positioned at the ends of the branches of work processes, rather than in the middle of linked work segments” (Situated Learning, p. 110). These sorts of fringe tasks benefit the team, but they will also benefit you as an apprentice, because such chores are often skipped in academic courses and by doing them you can fill in the gaps in your knowledge. This experience will serve you well as a journeyman too, because any master who takes you on will understand how valuable it is to have someone to do the unglamorous work. After all, if no one sweeps the floor, then the glamorous work can’t be done because the team is hip-deep in dirt.

Of course, Sweeping the Floor can be tough to swallow if you have spent a lot of time and money on a computer science education. In theory, you’ve already paid your dues by pulling frequent all-night debugging sessions and enduring countless menial assignments from your professors. Unfortunately, in the workplace your education is worth less than you might think. Sure, there are plenty of organizations that make a computer science degree a high priority when they’re hiring people, but getting hired is different from joining a team. Once you’re in the door, all that education is doing for you is raising people’s expectations about what you’ll deliver on your first day (and hopefully it prepared you for that first day!). The same can be said if you are a self-taught person who “paid your dues” on previous projects. Regardless of where you came from, when you join a new project you are starting from square one. You should take this opportunity to send a message to the team that you want to contribute, even if it means taking on unsexy tasks.

There are a few negative consequences that may occur when you apply this pattern. One is that you may end up as the team’s gopher, condemned to do the menial tasks no one else will do. And while you’re unlikely to be seen as overstepping your boundaries due to the unglamorous nature of the tasks you’ve chosen there is a danger that you may not be able to turn your early success into a case for being given more challenging assignments. Alternatively, you may find yourself intimidated by doing anything other than Sweeping the Floor. There is also the danger that you may not be able to develop an appreciation for the bigger picture if you only work on piecemeal tasks with no wider coherence. If you find yourself in any of these situations, try to Nurture Your Passion, Unleash Your Enthusiasm, advocate for yourself, and look for every opportunity to prove yourself worthy of higher-level work.


What’s the grungiest task that your team has been putting off for months? It will be the one that everybody complains about and that no one wants to tackle. Tackle it. And don’t just hold your nose and force yourself to do it; see if you can creatively resolve the problem in a way that exceeds people’s expectations and makes it fun for you.

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