This chapter describes the common root causes of security vulnerabilities that result from the implementation of a protocol. These causes are distinct from vulnerabilities that derive from a protocol’s specification (as discussed in Chapter 7). A vulnerability does not have to be directly exploitable for it to be considered a vulnerability. It might weaken the security stance of the protocol, making other attacks easier. Or it might allow access to more serious vulnerabilities.

After reading this chapter, you’ll begin to see patterns in protocols that will help you identify security vulnerabilities during your analysis. (I won’t discuss how to exploit the different classes until Chapter 10.)

In this chapter, ...

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