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Audio Engineer's Reference Book, 2nd Edition by Michael Talbot-Smith

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2.4 Loudspeakers and headphones

2.4.1 Introduction

The basic function of a loudspeaker is simply stated: it is to respond to the incoming audio frequency electrical signals representing music or speech by performing physical vibrations, which in turn radiate sound waves corresponding as closely as possible to the original signals (see Figure 2.48).

In practice, things are not quite so simple, and considerable design efforts are needed if the air wave reaching the listener is to match the original even approximately. The difficulties include making the diaphragm and its suspension capable of: (a) responding evenly to the full frequency range, nominally from 20 Hz to 20 kHz; (b) handling the full dynamic range, say 80 dB, i.e. a range of displacements ...

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