Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Exordium

1 Vaccines: Their place in history

Smallpox in history

Variolation

Variolation in history

Variolation comes to Britain

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Variolation and the Sublime Porte

The royal experiment

The boston connection

Variolation takes hold

The Suttonian method

Variolation in Europe

The coming of vaccination

Edward Jenner

Cowpox

Vaccination vindicated

Louis Pasteur

Vaccination becomes a science

Meister, Pasteur and rabies

A vaccine for every disease

In the time of cholera

Haffkine and cholera

Bubonic plague

The changing face of disease

Almroth wright and typhoid

Tuberculosis, Koch, and Calmette

Vaccine BCG

PoLiomyelitis

Salk and Sabin

Diphtheria

Whooping cough

Many diseases, many vaccines

Smallpox: Endgame

Further reading

2 Vaccines: Need and opportunity

Eradication and reservoirs

The ongoing burden of disease

Lifespans

The evolving nature of disease

Economics, climate and disease

Three threats

Tuberculosis in the 21st century

HIV and AIDS

Malaria: Then and now

Influenza

Bioterrorism

Vaccines as medicines

Vaccines and the pharmaceutical industry

Making vaccines

The coming of the vaccine industry

3 Vaccines: How they work

Challenging the immune system

The threat from bacteria: Robust, diverse, and endemic

Microbes, diversity and metagenomics

The intrinsic complexity of the bacterial threat

Microbes and humankind

The nature of vaccines

Types of vaccine

Carbohydrate vaccines

Epitopic vaccines

Vaccine delivery

Emerging immunovaccinology ...

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