1. B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore, “Welcome to the Experience Economy,” Harvard Business Review, July-August 1998.


1. The working definition in this book is informed by and articulated differently from that introduced by Muniz and O’Guinn in 2001. Albert M. Muniz and Thomas C. O’Guinn, “Brand Community,” Journal of Consumer Research 27, no. 4 (March 2001): 412–32,

2. “Cigna U.S. Loneliness Index.”, May 2018,

3. “Cigna U.S. Loneliness Index.”

4. Jayne O’Donnell, “Teens Aren’t Socializing in the Real World. And That’s Making Them Super Lonely,” USA Today, March 20, 2019, ...

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