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Business Mathematics

Book Description

Chapters and topics have been organized in a reader-friendly manner. Ample number of solved examples and exercise problems included in each chapter. Extensive coverage of applications of mathematical modeling in business. Ideal text for all levels with real-life applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. About the Author
  6. Dedication
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Business Mathematics
    1. 1.1 Introduction to Business Mathematics
    2. 1.2 Scope and Importance
      1. 1.2.1 Steps in Quantitative Analysis Approach
    3. 1.3 Number System
      1. 1.3.1 Natural Numbers
      2. 1.3.2 Whole Numbers
    4. 1.4 Positive and Negative Integers
      1. 1.4.1 Positive Integers
      2. 1.4.2 Negative Integers
    5. 1.5 Fractions
      1. 1.5.1 Proper Fraction
      2. 1.5.2 Improper Fraction
    6. 1.6 Rational and Irrational Numbers
      1. 1.6.1 Rational Numbers
      2. 1.6.2 Irrational Numbers
    7. 1.7 Real Numbers
    8. 1.8 Sum of First n Natural Numbers
    9. 1.9 Sum of Square and Sum of Cube of First n Natural Numbers
  10. CHAPTER 2 Algebra
    1. 2.1 Algebra
    2. 2.2 Algebraic Identities
    3. 2.3 Simple Factorizations
    4. 2.4 Equations
    5. 2.5 Linear and Quadratic Equations
      1. 2.5.1 Linear Equations
      2. 2.5.2 Simultaneous Linear Equations
      3. 2.5.3 Quadratic Equation
    6. 2.6 Indices and Surds
      1. 2.6.1 Indices
      2. 2.6.2 Surds
    7. 2.7 Logarithms and Their Properties
      1. 2.7.1 Definition
      2. 2.7.2 Properties
      3. 2.7.3 Common Logarithms
    8. 2.8 Problems Based on Logarithms
    9. 2.9 Inequality in Graphs
    10. 2.10 Remainder Theorem and Factor Theorem
      1. 2.10.1 Remainder Theorem
      2. 2.10.2 Factor Theorem
    11. Exercise
  11. CHAPTER 3 Theory of Sets and Its Business Applications
    1. 3.1 Set Theory
    2. 3.2 Representation of Sets
      1. 3.2.1 Tabulation Method
      2. 3.2.2 Set Builder Form
      3. 3.2.3 Cardinal Number
      4. 3.2.4 Element of a Set
      5. 3.2.5 Order of a Set
      6. 3.2.6 Finite Set
      7. 3.2.7 Infinite Set
      8. 3.2.8 Singleton Set
    3. 3.3 Union of Sets
    4. 3.4 Intersection of Two Sets
    5. 3.5 Complement of a Set
    6. 3.6 Subset
      1. 3.6.1 Identical/Equal Set
      2. 3.6.2 Equivalent Set
      3. 3.6.3 Disjoint Set
      4. 3.6.4 Universal Set
    7. 3.7 Null Set/Empty Set/Void Set
    8. 3.8 Difference of a Set
    9. 3.9 De Morgan’s Law
    10. 3.10 Universal Set
    11. 3.11 Basic Operations on Set
      1. 3.11.1 Union of Sets
      2. 3.11.2 Intersection of Two Sets
      3. 3.11.3 Difference of a Set
      4. 3.11.4 Complement of a Set
    12. 3.12 Cartesian Products
    13. 3.13 Laws of Set Algebra
    14. 3.14 Cardinal Numbers
    15. 3.15 Venn Diagram
    16. 3.16 Business Applications
    17. Exercise
  12. CHAPTER 4 Ratio
    1. 4.1 Ratio
    2. 4.2 Proportion
    3. 4.3 Types of Proportion
      1. 4.3.1 Direct Proportion
      2. 4.3.2 Inverse Proportion
      3. 4.3.3 Indirect Proportion
    4. 4.4 Ratio, Proportion and Its Type of Comparison
      1. 4.4.1 Addition and Subtraction of Ratios
    5. 4.5 Variations
      1. 4.5.1 Direct Variation
      2. 4.5.2 Inverse Variation
      3. 4.5.3 Joint Variation
    6. 4.6 Percentage
      1. 4.6.1 Uses of Percentages
      2. 4.6.2 Converting Fractions into Percentage
      3. 4.6.3 Problem Based on Quantity Application
      4. 4.6.4 Problem Based on Election Application
      5. 4.6.5 Problem Based on Examination Application
      6. 4.6.6 Price Mixture
      7. 4.6.7 Decimal Fraction
    7. 4.7 Annexing Zeros and Removing Decimal Signs
      1. 4.7.1 Annexing Zeros
    8. 4.8 Average (Arithmetic Mean)
      1. 4.8.1 Discrete Data
      2. 4.8.2 Discrete Data with Frequency
    9. 4.9 Computation of Mean for Grouped Series
    10. 4.10 Mean of Composite Group
    11. Exercise
  13. CHAPTER 5 Functions and Graphs
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Function
      1. 5.2.1 Constant
      2. 5.2.2 Variable
    3. 5.3 Domain and Range of a Function
    4. 5.4 Continuous and Discrete Functions
      1. 5.4.1 Continuous Function
      2. 5.4.2 Discrete Function
    5. 5.5 Composition and Inverse Functions
      1. 5.5.1 Composition Functions
      2. 5.5.2 Order of Composition
      3. 5.5.3 Decomposition of a Function
      4. 5.5.4 Inverse Function
    6. 5.6 Classification of Functions
    7. 5.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
      1. 5.7.1 Exponential Functions
      2. 5.7.2 Logarithmic Functions
    8. 5.8 Graphs
      1. 5.8.1 The General Idea of Curve Sketching and Graphs of Straight Lines
    9. 5.9 Modulus Function
    10. Exercise
  14. CHAPTER 6 Quadratic Functions and Theory of Quadratic Equations
    1. 6.1 Quadratic Functions
      1. 6.1.1 Quadratic Modeling
    2. 6.2 Evaluating the Solutions of the Quadratic Equation ax2 + bx + c = 0
    3. 6.3 Nature of the Roots of Quadratic Equation
    4. 6.4 Sum and Product of the Roots
    5. 6.5 Relations Between the Roots
    6. 6.6 Condition for the Existence of a Common Root
    7. 6.7 To Form the Equation Whose Roots Are r1 and r2
    8. 6.8 Graph of the Function f (x) = ax2 + bx + c; a ≠ 0
    9. 6.9 Sign of the Expression f (x) = ax2 + bx + c
    10. 6.10 Maximum/Minimum Values of a Quadratic Function
    11. 6.11 Solution of Quadratic Inequalities
    12. 6.12 Additional Problems
    13. Exercise
  15. CHAPTER 7 Permutation and Combination
    1. 7.1 Fundamental Counting Principl
    2. 7.2 Factorial
    3. 7.3 Permutation
      1. 7.3.1 Permutation of n Different Things
      2. 7.3.2 Permutation of n Things Not All Different (Taken All Together)
    4. 7.4 Restricted Permutation
    5. 7.5 Circular Permutations
    6. 7.6 Combination
      1. 7.6.1 To Find the Number of Ways of Selecting r Things Out of n Things
      2. 7.6.2 Complementary Combination
      3. 7.6.3 Different Formulas on Combination
    7. 7.7 Restricted Combinations
    8. 7.8 Division into Groups
    9. 7.9 Mixed Problems on Permutation and Combination
    10. Exercise
  16. CHAPTER 8 Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem
    1. 8.1 Principle of Mathematical Induction
    2. 8.2 Binomial Theorem for a Positive Integral Index
    3. 8.3 Properties of the Binomial Coefficients
    4. 8.4 General Term in Binomial Expansion
    5. 8.5 Middle Term in the Binomial Expansion
    6. 8.6 Greatest Term in the Binomial Expansion
    7. 8.7 Binomial Theorem for Any Index
      1. 8.7.1 Binomial Theorem for a Rational Index
    8. Exercise
  17. CHAPTER 9 Sequence and Series–Its Application to Business
    1. 9.1 General Idea and Different Types of Sequences
    2. 9.2 Different Types of Sequence
      1. 9.2.1 Finite Sequence
      2. 9.2.2 Infinite Sequence
      3. 9.2.3 Fibonacci Sequence
    3. 9.3 Kinds of Sequence
      1. 9.3.1 Arithmetic Sequence
      2. 9.3.2 Geometric Sequence
    4. 9.4 Arithmetic and Geometric Means
    5. 9.5 Arithmetic Progression (AP)
    6. 9.6 Geometric Progression (GP)
      1. 9.6.1 Sum to Infinity of a Geometric Series
      2. 9.6.2 Recurring Decimals as Geometric Progression
    7. 9.7 Harmonic Progression (HP)
      1. 9.7.1 Harmonic Mean
      2. 9.7.2 Special Case
      3. 9.7.3 Method of Differences
    8. Exercise
  18. CHAPTER 10 Compound Interest and Annuities
    1. 10.1 Interest
      1. 10.1.1 Simple Interest
      2. 10.1.2 Compound Interest/Continuous Compounding
    2. 10.2 Present Value and Amount of a Sum
    3. 10.3 Annuity and Its Types
    4. 10.4 Present Value of an Annuity (PVA)
    5. 10.5 Debenture
    6. Exercise
  19. CHAPTER 11 Coordinate Geometry
    1. 11.1 Fundamentals
    2. 11.2 Rectangular Cartesian Coordinates/Cartesian Coordinates System
    3. 11.3 Polar Coordinates
    4. 11.4 Distance Formula
    5. 11.5 Section Formula
      1. 11.5.1 To Find the Mid-point of the Line Joining (x1, y1) and (x2, y2)
    6. 11.6 Centroid of a Triangle
    7. 11.7 Area of a Triangle
    8. Exercise
  20. CHAPTER 12 Locus and Equation to a Locus
    1. 12.1 Locus
    2. 12.2 Equation to a Locus
    3. Exercise
  21. CHAPTER 13 Straight Line
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Definitions of the Terms
      1. 13.2.1 To Find the Equation of a Line Parallel to the x-axis
    3. 13.3 Different Forms of the Equation of a Straight Line
      1. 13.3.1 Gradient/Slope-intercept Form
      2. 13.3.2 Point Slope Form
      3. 13.3.3 Intercept Form of the Equation of a Straight Line
      4. 13.3.4 Normal Form of the Equation of a Straight Line
      5. 13.3.5 Distance Form of the Equation of a Straight Line
      6. 13.3.6 General Form ax + by + c = 0
    4. 13.4 Distance of a Point from a Straight Line
      1. 13.4.1 To Find the Length of the Perpendicular from the Origin on the Line ax + by + c = 0
    5. 13.5 Angle Between Two Lines and Condition of Parallelism and Perpendicularityof Lines
      1. 13.5.1 Angle Between Two Lines
      2. 13.5.2 Condition for Parallelism of Two Lines
      3. 13.5.3 Condition for Perpendicularity of Two Lines
      4. 13.5.4 Equations of Straight Lines Parallel or Perpendicular to the Given Line
    6. 13.6 Point of Intersection of Two Lines
      1. 13.6.1 General Form of the Equation of a Line
    7. 13.7 Condition for Concurrency of Three Given Straight Lines
    8. 13.8 Position of a Point with Respect to a Given Line
    9. Exercise
  22. CHAPTER 14 Circle
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Standard Form/General Form/Center Radius Form of the Equation of a Circle
    3. 14.3 Finding the Centre and Radius of a Circle
    4. 14.4 Position of a Point with Respect to a Given Circle
    5. 14.5 Condition for a Line to be a Tangent
      1. 14.5.1 Condition for a Line to Touch the Circle with Centre O(0, 0)
      2. 14.5.2 Condition for a Line to Be Tangent to the Circle with Centre C(g, f )
    6. 14.6 Diameter Form of the Equation of a Circle
    7. 14.7 Tangents
      1. 14.7.1 Equations of Tangents to the Circle of the Form x2 + y2 = a2
      2. 14.7.2 Equations of Tangents to the Circle of the Form x2 + 2gx + y2 + 2fy + c = 0
    8. 14.8 Points of Intersection of a Circle and a Straight Line
    9. 14.9 To Find the Length of the Tangent from P(x1, y1) to the Circle
    10. 14.10 Condition for Two Circles to Touch Each Other
    11. 14.11 Normal
    12. 14.12 Equations of the Circles in Some Special Cases
      1. 14.12.1 The Equation of a Circle of Radius r, Passing Through the Origin and Having Its Center on the (i) x-axis and (ii) y-axis
      2. 14.12.2 Equation of a Circle of Radius r and Touching Both the Axes
      3. 14.12.3 Equation of a Circle on the Join of A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) as a Diameter
      4. 14.12.4 Equation of a Circle Passing Through the Origin and Making Intercepts a and b on the Axis
    13. 14.13 Angle of Intersection of Two Circles
      1. 14.13.1 Orthogonal Circles
    14. 14.14 Equation of the Common Chord (Radical Axis) of the Two Circles
    15. 14.15 Family of Circles
    16. Exercise
  23. CHAPTER 15 Matrix and Its Applications to Business
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Definitions and Notations
      1. 15.2.1 Matrix
      2. 15.2.2 General Form of the Matrix
      3. 15.2.3 Square Matrix
      4. 15.2.4 Rectangular Matrix
      5. 15.2.5 Row Matrix
      6. 15.2.6 Column Matrix
      7. 15.2.7 Transpose of a Matrix
      8. 15.2.8 Diagonal Matrix
      9. 15.2.9 Scalar Matrix
      10. 15.2.10 Identity Matrix
      11. 15.2.11 Null Matrix
      12. 15.2.12 Upper Triangular Matrix
      13. 15.2.13 Lower Triangular Matrix
      14. 15.2.14 Triangular Matrix
      15. 15.2.15 Matrix Representation of Multivariable Data
    3. 15.3 Operations on Matrices
      1. 15.3.1 Rules for Matrices Operation
      2. 15.3.2 Properties of Matrix Addition
      3. 15.3.3 Properties of Matrix Multiplication
      4. 15.3.4 Scalar Multiplication of Matrix
    4. 15.4 Conversion of a Business Problem into a Linear System of Equations (LSE) (Figure 15.1)
      1. 15.4.1 Equation
      2. 15.4.2 Linear Equation
    5. 15.5 Determinant of a Square Matrix
      1. 15.5.1 Non-singular Matrix and Singular Matrix
      2. 15.5.2 Sarrus Diagram for Expansion of Determinant of Order 3
      3. 15.5.3 Properties of Determinants
      4. 15.5.4 Rank of a Matrix
      5. 15.5.5 Application of Rank Concept
      6. 15.5.6 Minor and Cofactor
      7. 15.5.7 Adjoint of a Square Matrix
      8. 15.5.8 Inverse of a Square Matrix (Figure 15.2)
      9. 15.5.9 Finding Inverse Using Row Transformation Technique (Figure 15.3)
      10. 15.5.10 The Echelon Matrix: Row Echelon Forms (REF)
      11. 15.5.11 Depreciation Lapse Schedule
    6. 15.6 Matrix Equation
      1. 15.6.1 Conversion
    7. 15.7 Methods to Solve Linear System of Equations
      1. 15.7.1 Solution to the Linear System of Equations
      2. 15.7.2 Types of Solutions
      3. 15.7.3 Cramer’s Rule (Figure 15.4)
      4. 15.7.4 Matrix Inversion Method (Figure 15.5)
      5. 15.7.5 Gaussian Elimination Method (Figure 15.6)
      6. 15.7.6 Gauss–Jordan Method (Figure 15.7)
      7. 15.7.7 Variance Analysis
    8. Exercise
  24. CHAPTER 16 Application of Matrix Concept
    1. 16.1 Input-Output Analysis
      1. 16.1.1 Assumptions of a Model
    2. 16.2 Markov Analysis
      1. 16.2.1 Stochastic Process
      2. 16.2.2 Markov Process
      3. 16.2.3 One Stage Transition Probability
      4. 16.2.4 Markov Chain
      5. 16.2.5 State Transition Matrix
      6. 16.2.6 Steady State
      7. 16.2.7 Existence of the Steady State
    3. Exercise
  25. CHAPTER 17 Differential Calculus and Its Business Applications
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Limit of a Function and Rules for Evaluating the Limit of a Function
      1. 17.2.1 Theorems on Limit
      2. 17.2.2 List of Important Results
    3. 17.3 Continuous Function
    4. 17.4 Slope and Rate of Change
      1. 17.4.1 Derivative
    5. 17.5 Method for Evaluating the Differential Coefficient Using the First Principle and Standard Results
      1. 17.5.1 Derivative of a Sum/Difference of Two/More Functions
      2. 17.5.2 Derivative of a Product of Two Functions
      3. 17.5.3 Derivative of a Quotient of Two Functions
      4. 17.5.4 Derivative of the nth Power of a Function
      5. 17.5.5 Derivative of a Logarithmic Function
      6. 17.5.6 Derivative of an Exponential Function
    6. 17.6 Differentiation of an Implicit function
    7. 17.7 Parametric Differentiation
    8. 17.8 Logarithmic Differentiation
      1. 17.8.1 Properties of Logarithms
      2. 17.8.2 Differentiation of ax w.r.t. x
    9. 17.9 Applications of Differential Calculus
      1. 17.9.1 Average Concept
      2. 17.9.2 Marginal Concept
      3. 17.9.3 Average Cost
      4. 17.9.4 Marginal Cost
      5. 17.9.5 Elasticity
      6. 17.9.6 Price Elasticity of Supply
      7. 17.9.7 Price Elasticity of Demand
      8. 17.9.8 Marginal Revenue and Elasticity of Demand
    10. 17.10 Successive Differentiation
      1. 17.10.1 Definition and Notations
    11. 17.11 Concept of Maxima and Minima
    12. 17.12 Lagrangian Method for Equality Constraints
    13. 17.13 Constrained Optimization with Inequality Constraints: Kuhn−Tucker Conditions
    14. 17.14 Differential Equation
      1. 17.14.1 Formation of a Differential Equation
      2. 17.14.2 Solution to a Given Linear Differential Equation
      3. 17.14.3 Method for Solving the Equation of the Type dy/dx = f(x)/f(y)
      4. 17.14.4 Method for Solving the Differential Equation of the Type dy/dx = f1(x,y)/f2(x,y)
    15. Exercise
  26. CHAPTER 18 Applications of Integral Calculus to Business
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Constant of Integration
    3. 18.3 List of Standard Integrals
    4. 18.4 Standard Results
    5. 18.5 Definite Integral
      1. 18.5.1 Properties of Definite Integral
    6. 18.6 Integration by Substitution
      1. 18.6.1 Some Special Types
    7. 18.7 Method of Partial Fractions
    8. 18.8 Method of Integration by Parts
    9. 18.9 Application of Integral Calculus to Business
      1. 18.9.1 Cost Function
      2. 18.9.2 Revenue Function
      3. 18.9.3 Consumer’s Surplus and Producer’s Surplus
    10. 18.10 Learning Curves
      1. 18.10.1 Arithmetic Approach
      2. 18.10.2 Logarithmic Approach
    11. Exercise
  27. CHAPTER 19 Functions and Their Applications to Business
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Function
      1. 19.2.1 Constant
      2. 19.2.2 Variable
      3. 19.2.3 Single Valued Function
      4. 19.2.4 Many Valued Function
      5. 19.2.5 Explicit and Implicit Functions
      6. 19.2.6 Even and Odd Functions
      7. 19.2.7 Algebraic Function
      8. 19.2.8 Transcendental Function
      9. 19.2.9 Inverse Function
    3. 19.3 Functions Related to Commerce and Economic Theory
      1. 19.3.1 Demand Function
      2. 19.3.2 Cost Function
      3. 19.3.3 Total Cost Function
      4. 19.3.4 Average Cost Function
      5. 19.3.5 Marginal Cost Function
      6. 19.3.6 Revenue Function
      7. 19.3.7 Profit Function
    4. Exercise
  28. CHAPTER 20 Linear Programming and Its Application to Business
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 General Model of the Linear Programming Problem
    3. 20.3 Characteristics of a Linear Programming Problem
    4. 20.4 Assumptions of Linear Programming
      1. 20.4.1 Limitations of Linear Programming Program
    5. 20.5 Formulation of Linear Programming Program
    6. 20.6 Standard Form of an LPP
      1. 20.6.1Conversion of an LPP into Standard Form with Maximization Objective (Figure: 20.1)
    7. 20.7 Solution to an LPP
    8. 20.7.1 Types of Possible Solutions to an LPP
    9. 20.8 Convex Set and Extreme Point
    10. 20.9 Graphical Solution to an LPP
    11. 20.10 Simplex Methods
      1. 20.10.1 Simplex Method-I/Ordinary Simplex Method
      2. 20.10.2 Penalty Method/Big-M Method/Charnes Method (Figure 20.5)
      3. 20.10.3 Two-Phase Method (Figure 20.6)
      4. 20.10.4 Duality Concept in a Linear Programming
      5. 20.10.5 Dual Simplex Method (DSM) (Figure 20.7)
    12. Exercise
  29. CHAPTER 21 Transportation Problem
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Conversion of a TP into an Equivalent LPP Form
    3. 21.3 Formulation of a Transportation Problem
    4. 21.4 Concept of Feasibility, Basicness and Degeneracy
    5. 21.5 Methods Used to Find the Solution to a Transportation Problem
    6. 21.6 Description of Various Methods to Find the Initial Basic Feasible Solution
      1. 21.6.1 North–West Corner Rule
      2. 21.6.2 Row Minima Method
      3. 21.6.3 Column Minima Method
      4. 21.6.4 Least Cost Method/Matrix Minima Method
      5. 21.6.5 Vogel’s Approximation Method
      6. 21.6.6 Effectiveness of Various Methods
    7. 21.7 Stepping Stone Method/Modified Distributive Method
    8. 21.8 Transshipment Problems
    9. 21.9 Sensitivity Analysis for Transportation Problem
      1. 21.9.1 Change in the Objective Function Coefficient by a Non-basic Variable
      2. 21.9.2 Change in the Objective Function Coefficient of a Basic Variable
      3. 21.9.3 Increasing Both Supply Si and Demand dj by ∆
    10. 21.10 Introduction to Assignment Programming Problem
      1. 21.10.1 General Model of the Assignment Problem
      2. 21.10.2 Conversion into an Equivalent LPP
      3. 21.10.3 Solution to the Assignment Problem
      4. 21.10.4 Travelling Salesman Problem
    11. 21.11 Introduction to Game Theory
      1. 21.11.1 Game
      2. 21.11.2 Algebraic Method to Solve a 2 × 2 Game
      3. 21.11.3 Algebraic Method to Solve a 3 × 3 Game
      4. 21.11.4 Graphical Method to Solve a 2 × n or n × 2 Game
      5. 21.11.5 Dominance Property
      6. 21.11.6 Linear Programming Application to Solve a Game
    12. Exercise
  30. CHAPTER 22 Probability Theory
    1. 22.1 Introduction
    2. 22.2 Definition for Certain Key Terms
    3. 22.3 Meaning of Probability
      1. 22.3.1 Addition Rules for Probability
      2. 22.3.2 Multiplication Rule on Probability When Events Are Independent
      3. 22.3.3 Compound Probability or Conditional Probability
    4. 22.4 Baye’s Theorem
    5. 22.5 Random Variables and Expectation
      1. 22.5.1 Introduction
      2. 22.5.2 Random Variable
      3. 22.5.3 Discrete Random Variable
      4. 22.5.4 Continuous Random Variable
    6. 22.6 Probability Distribution
      1. 22.6.1 Discrete Probability Distribution
      2. 22.6.2 Characteristics of a Discrete Distribution
      3. 22.6.3 Probability Function
    7. 22.7 Mathematical Expectation
    8. 22.8 Discrete Probability Distribution (Binomial and Poisson Distributions)
      1. 22.8.1 Introduction
      2. 22.8.2 Binomial Distribution
      3. 22.8.3 Characteristics of a Bernoulli Process
      4. 22.8.4 Definition of Binomial Distribution
      5. 22.8.5 Conditions of Binomial Distribution
      6. 22.8.6 Properties of Binomial Distribution
      7. 22.8.7 Mean of Binomial Distribution
      8. 22.8.8 Variance of Binomial Distribution
    9. 22.9 Poisson Distribution
      1. 22.9.1 Definition of Poisson Distribution
      2. 22.9.2 Properties of Poisson Distribution
      3. 22.9.3 Mean of Poisson Distribution
      4. 22.9.4 Variance of Poisson Distribution
    10. 22.10 Continuous Probability Distribution (Normal Distribution)
      1. 22.10.1 Introduction
      2. 22.10.2 Definition of Normal Distribution
      3. 22.10.3 Standard Normal Distribution
      4. 22.10. 4 Properties of Normal Distribution
    11. Exercise
  31. CHAPTER 23 Correlation and Regression Analysis
    1. 23.1 Introduction
    2. 23.2 Correlation
      1. 23.2.1 Simple Correlation/Correlation
      2. 23.2.2 Rank Correlation
      3. 23.2.3 Group Correlation
      4. 23.2.4 Assumptions for Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation
      5. 23.2.5 Limitations
      6. 23.2.6 Properties
      7. 23.2.7 Scatter Diagram
    3. 23.3 Karl Pearson Coefficient of Correlation
    4. 23.4 Coefficient of Correlation for a Grouped Data
    5. 23.5 Probable Error of the Coefficient of Correlation
    6. 23.6 Rank Correlation
    7. 23.7 Regression Equations
    8. Exercise
  32. CHAPTER 24 Concept of Shares
    1. 24.1 Shares
    2. 24.2 Stock Exchange
      1. 24.2.1 Role of Stock Exchanges in the Economy
    3. 24.3 Nature of Shares
      1. 24.3.1 Face Value
      2. 24.3.2 Book Value
      3. 24.3.3 Market Value
      4. 24.3.4 Difference Between Face Value and Market Value
      5. 24.3.5 Brokerage
      6. 24.3.6 Dividend
    4. 24.4 Different Types of Shares
      1. 24.4.1 Equity Shares
      2. 24.4.2 Preferential Shares
    5. 24.5 Bonus Share
  33. Acknowledgements
  34. Copyright
  35. Back Cover