Counter-controlled iteration (p. 160) requires a control variable, the initial value of the control variable, the increment by which the control variable is modified each time through the loop (also known as each iteration of the loop) and the loop-continuation condition that determines whether looping should continue.
In C++, a variable declaration that also reserves memory is a definition (p. 161).
whilestatement can be used to implement any counter-controlled loop.
forstatement (p. 161) specifies all the details of counter-controlled iteration in its header
forstatement begins executing, its control variable is optionally ...