... main() { 7      unsigned int counter{1}; // declare and initialize control variable
 8
 9      while (counter <= 10) { // loop-continuation condition
10         cout << counter << " ";
11         ++counter; // increment control variable
12      }
13
14     cout << endl;
15     }

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

In Fig. 5.1, the elements of counter-controlled iteration are defined in lines 7, 9 and 11. Line 7 declares the control variable (counter) as an unsigned int, reserves space for it in memory and sets its initial value to 1. Declarations that require initialization are executable statements. In C++, it’s more precise to call a variable declaration that also reserves memory a definition. Because definitions are declarations, too, we’ll use the term “declaration” except when the distinction is ...

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