Block-Level Elements

Block-level elements—such as paragraphs, H1s, lists, and list elements—behave in interesting ways, sometimes predictable, sometimes surprising. There are differences in the handling of element placement along the horizontal and vertical axes, for example. In order to fully understand how block-level elements are handled, you must clearly understand a number of boundaries and areas. They are shown in detail in Figure 8-2.

The complete box model

Figure 8-2. The complete box model

In general, the width of an element is defined to be the distance from the left inner edge to the right inner edge, and the height is the distance from the inner top to the inner bottom. These are both, not coincidentally, properties that can be applied to an element.

The various widths, heights, padding, margins, and borders all combine to determine how a document is laid out. In most cases, the height and width are automatically determined by the browser, based on the available display region and other factors. Under CSS, of course, you can assert more direct control over the way elements are sized and displayed. There are different effects to consider for horizontal and vertical layout, so we’ll tackle them separately.

Vertical Formatting

Vertical formatting is much easier to cover, so let’s do that first. A good deal of this was covered in the previous chapter, so we’ll revisit the high points and delve into ...

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