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Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Third Edition by Joseph F. Louvar, Daniel A. Crowl

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Chapter 5. Toxic Release and Dispersion Models

During an accident, process equipment can release toxic materials quickly and in significant enough quantities to spread in dangerous clouds throughout a plant site and the local community. A few examples are explosive rupture of a process vessel as a result of excessive pressure caused by a runaway reaction, rupture of a pipeline containing toxic materials at high pressure, rupture of a tank containing toxic material stored above its atmospheric boiling point, and rupture of a train or truck transportation tank following an accident.

Serious accidents (such as Bhopal) emphasize the importance of planning for emergencies and of designing plants to minimize the occurrence and consequences of a toxic ...

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