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Clojure High Performance Programming - Second Edition by Shantanu Kumar

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The latency numbers that every programmer should know

Hardware and software have progressed over the years. Latencies for various operations put things in perspective. The latency numbers for the year 2015, reproduced with the permission of Aurojit Panda and Colin Scott of Berkeley University (http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~rcs/research/interactive_latency.html). Latency numbers that every programmer should know are as shown in the following table:

Operation

Time taken as of 2015

L1 cache reference

1ns (nano second)

Branch mispredict

3 ns

L2 cache reference

4 ns

Mutex lock/unlock

17 ns

Compress 1KB with Zippy

(Zippy/Snappy: http://code.google.com/p/snappy/)

2μs (1000 ns = 1μs: micro second)

Send 2000 bytes over the commodity network ...

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