In the world of IT operations, the key principles of DevOps have become well understood and widely adopted, but now the landscape is changing. A new application platform called Kubernetes has become rapidly adopted by companies all over the world and in all kinds of different industries. As more and more applications and businesses move from traditional servers to the Kubernetes environment, people are asking how to do DevOps in this new world.
This book explains what DevOps means in a cloud native world where Kubernetes is the standard platform. It will help you select the best tools and frameworks from the Kubernetes ecosystem. It will also present a coherent way to use those tools and frameworks, offering battle-tested solutions that are running right now, in production, for real.
You’ll learn what Kubernetes is, where it comes from, and what it means for the future of software development and operations. You’ll learn how containers work, how to build and manage them, and how to design cloud native services and infrastructure.
You’ll understand the trade-offs between building and hosting Kubernetes clusters yourself, and using managed services. You’ll learn the capabilities, limitations, and pros and cons of popular Kubernetes installation tools such as kops, kubeadm, and Kubespray. You’ll get an informed overview of the major managed Kubernetes offerings from the likes of Amazon, Google, and Microsoft.
You’ll get hands-on practical experience of writing and deploying Kubernetes applications, configuring and operating Kubernetes clusters, and automating cloud infrastructure and deployments with tools such as Helm. You’ll learn about Kubernetes support for security, authentication, and permissions, including Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), and best practices for securing containers and Kubernetes in production.
You’ll learn how to set up continuous integration and deployment with Kubernetes, how to back up and restore data, how to test your cluster for conformance and reliability, how to monitor, trace, log, and aggregate metrics, and how to make your Kubernetes infrastructure scalable, resilient, and cost-effective.
To illustrate all the things we talk about, we apply them to a very simple demo application. You can follow along with all our examples using the code from our Git repo.
This book is most directly relevant to IT operations staff responsible for servers, applications, and services, and developers responsible for either building new cloud native services, or migrating existing applications to Kubernetes and cloud. We assume no prior knowledge of Kubernetes or containers—don’t worry, we’ll walk you through all that.
Experienced Kubernetes users should still find much valuable material in the book: it covers advanced topics such as RBAC, continuous deployment, secrets management, and observability. Whatever your level of expertise, we hope you’ll find something useful in these pages.
In planning and writing this book, we spoke to hundreds of people about cloud native and Kubernetes, ranging from industry leaders and experts to complete beginners. Here are some of the questions they said they wanted a book like this to answer:
“I’d like to learn why I should invest my time in this technology. What problems will it help to solve for me and my team?”
“Kubernetes seems great, but it’s quite a steep learning curve. Setting up a quick demo is easy, but operating and troubleshooting it seems daunting. We’d like some solid guidance on how people are running Kubernetes clusters in the real world, and what problems we’re likely to encounter.”
“Opinionated advice would be useful. The Kubernetes ecosystem has too many options for beginning teams to choose between. When there are multiple ways of doing the same thing, which one is best? How do we choose?”
And perhaps the most important question of all:
“How do I use Kubernetes without breaking my company?”
We kept these questions, and many others, firmly in mind while writing this book, and we’ve done our level best to answer them. How did we do? Turn the page to find out.
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Supplemental material (code examples, exercises, etc.) is available for download at https://github.com/cloudnativedevops/demo.
This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, if example code is offered with this book, you may use it in your programs and documentation. You do not need to contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book into your product’s documentation does require permission.
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Our grateful thanks are due to the many people who read early drafts of this book and gave us invaluable feedback and advice, or assisted us in other ways, including (but not limited to) Abby Bangser, Adam J. McPartlan, Adrienne Domingus, Alexis Richardson, Aron Trauring, Camilla Montonen, Gabriell Nascimento, Hannah Klemme, Hans Findel, Ian Crosby, Ian Shaw, Ihor Dvoretskyi, Ike Devolder, Jeremy Yates, Jérôme Petazzoni, Jessica Deen, John Harris, Jon Barber, Kitty Karate, Marco Lancini, Mark Ellens, Matt North, Michel Blanc, Mitchell Kent, Nicolas Steinmetz, Nigel Brown, Patrik Duditš, Paul van der Linden, Philippe Ensarguet, Pietro Mamberti, Richard Harper, Rick Highness, Sathyajith Bhat, Suresh Vishnoi, Thomas Liakos, Tim McGinnis, Toby Sullivan, Tom Hall, Vincent De Smet, and Will Thames.