The concept-oriented R&D approach has become much more important in an unpredictably changing society and economy for achieving sustainable life, business, research, and development. With the occurrence of recent natural disasters, environmental pollution, and financial crises, the concepts of technology and business (commerce) have been gradually recognized as key factors in overcoming these difficulties and ensuring sustainability. As mentioned in the Preface, the authors of the next four chapters argue that the concept creation can be achieved by applying the three aspects of (1) human education, (2) interdisciplinary perspective (or view), and (3) business fields (commerce). Chapter 2 discusses the processes of human education with the objectives of ensuring an expansion or widening of knowledge or viewpoints, Chapter 3, an interdisciplinary perspective or view for innovating technologies and business; Chapter 4, business (commerce) cultivation for sustainable human society; and Chapter 5, chain of concept creation (see Figure II.1 for a simplified view) among aspects 1–3 (this is aspect 4 mentioned in the Preface).
These four aspects are summarized as follows: