1. Thomas H. Davenport and Jeanne G. Harris, Competing on Analytics: The New Science of Winning (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007).

2. Stewart Taggart, “The 20-Ton Packet,”, October 1999, http://www.wired/archive/7.10/ports.html.

3. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, “A Chronology of Data Breaches Reported Since the ChoicePoint Incident,”

4. Nicholas Carr, “IT Doesn’t Matter,” Harvard Business Review, May 2003, 41–49.

5. Carr does not use this model. He calls the first phase “IT build-out,” although I prefer “coherent IT infrastructure,” after Understanding Information, report by P-E Center for Management Research, Surrey, UK, ...

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