Stacks, Queues, and Deques
A stack is a collection of objects that are inserted and removed according to the last-in, first-out (LIFO) principle. A user may insert objects into a stack at any time, but may only access or remove the most recently inserted object that remains (at the so-called “top” of the stack). The name “stack” is derived from the metaphor of a stack of plates in a spring-loaded, cafeteria plate dispenser. In this case, the fundamental operations involve the “pushing” and “popping” of plates on the stack. When we need a new plate from the dispenser, we “pop” the top plate off the stack, and when we add a plate, we “push” it down on the stack to become the new top plate. Perhaps an even more amusing example is a PEZ® candy dispenser, which stores mint candies in a spring-loaded container that “pops” out the ...