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# A Few Functions of Python®

To get function documentation, use .`__doc__`, e.g. `print(range.__doc__)`, or `help`, e.g. `help(zeros)` or `help(’def’)`, or `?`, e.g. `range.count?`

• `def`: introduces a function definition
• `if, else, elif`: an if statement consists of a Boolean expression followed by one or more statements
• `for`: executes a sequence of statements multiple times
• `while`: repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true
• `1j` or `complex`: returns complex value, e.g. `a=1.3+1j*0.2` or `a=complex(1.3,0.2)`

Methods:

• – type `A=array([0,4,12,3])`, then type `A.` and `tab`, it follows a lot of methods, e.g. the argument of the maximum using `A.argmax`. For help type, e.g. `A.dot?`.

Functions:

• `int`: converts a number or string to an integer
• `len`: returns the number of items in a container
• `range`: returns an object that produces a sequence of integers
• `type`: returns the object type

From `numpy`:

• `abs`: returns the absolute value of the argument
• `arange`: returns evenly spaced values within a given interval
• `argwhere`: finds the indices of array elements that are non-zero, grouped by element
• `array`: creates an array
• `cos, sin, tan`: respectively calculate the cosine, the sine and the tangent
• `cosh`: calculates the hyperbolic cosine
• `cumsum`: calculates the cumulative sum of array elements
• `diff`: calculates the n-th discrete difference along a given axis
• `dot`: product of two arrays
• `exp, log`: respectively calculate the exponential, the logarithm
• `fft`: calculates the ...

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