Chapter 13

Radiation Hazards


The electromagnetic spectrum encompasses all forms of radiant energy. The following table (Table 13.1) lists the various components and their wavelengths in decreasing order.

Table 13.1

Components of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Type of Radiation


Radio waves

30 km–3 cm


3 cm–10 mm

Thermal (heat)

0.078–0.001 mm

Infrared (includes thermal portion)

0.5 mm–1,000 Å


7,800–4,000 Å


4,000–1,850 Å

Extreme ultraviolet

1,850–150 Å

Soft x-rays

1,000–5 Å


5–0.06 Å

Gamma rays

1.4–0.01 Å

Cosmic rays (protons 85%, alpha-particles 12%, electrons, gamma rays, etc.

To 1/10,000 Å

Ionizing ...

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