10.9 Carbon dioxide laser

(i) Introduction: The carbon dioxide laser was invented by C. Kumar. N. Patel in the year 1963. This laser uses a mixture of carbon dioxide [CO2], Nitrogen [N2] and Helium [He] gases in the active medium of laser. The lasing action is from carbon dioxide molecules. They are the active molecules in the laser. The CO2 molecule is a linear symmetric molecule with carbon atom at the centre and oxygen atoms are on each side of the carbon atom. The lasing is due to the transitions of CO2 molecules in between vibrational-rotational levels. The CO2 molecules possess three different types of vibrational modes and each vibrational mode possesses a number of rotational modes. The vibrational modes are described as shown in Fig. ...

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