You can use ROMAN to convert a numeric value into a Roman numeral. For example, 1999 is expressed as MCMXCIX in Roman numerals.

To Calculate

=Roman(Number, Form)

The Number argument is required for this function. The Form argument is optional.


Indicates the numeric value that you want to convert to a Roman numeral. This number must not be negative and it must be less than 4000, or Roman will return an error.


An optional value that indicates how concise you want to express the numeric value. If this value is omitted it is assumed to have a value of 0, which will return the numeric value in the classic form. When dealing with Roman numerals there are multiple ways to express a value, for example 1999 is expressed as MCMXCIX, which equals one thousand (M) nine hundred (CM) ninety (XC) nine (IX). It could also be greatly simplified and expressed as MIM which equals one thousand (M) and one thousand minus one (IM). Table 14-1 provides a list of the values that are specified for the Form argument and illustrates the results you would receive if specified for the numeric value 1999.

Table 14-1. Roman Numeral Form Values




This is the default value that is used if the value is omitted for the Form argument. If you use this value the function returns a classic Roman numeral where 1999 is converted to MCMXCIX.


This option makes the Roman numeral more concise by converting 1999 to MLMVLIV.


This option makes the Roman numeral more concise ...

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